Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Procellariiformes > Procellariidae > Fulmarus > Fulmarus glacialis

Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), fulmar, or Arctic fulmar is a highly abundant sea bird found primarily in subarctic regions of the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. There has been one confirmed sighting in the Southern Hemisphere, with a single bird seen south of New Zealand. Fulmars come in one of two color morphs: a light one, with white head and body and gray wings and tail, and a dark one which is uniformly gray. Though similar in appearance to gulls, fulmars are in fact members of the Procellariidae family, which include petrels and shearwaters.
View Wikipedia Record: Fulmarus glacialis


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 12.5502
EDGE Score: 2.6064


Clutch Size [4]  1
Clutches / Year [4]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  14,000,000
Incubation [4]  55 days
Maximum Longevity [4]  51 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [6]  3.51 feet (1.07 m)
Adult Weight [2]  1.351 lbs (613 g)
Birth Weight [4]  65 grams
Female Weight [2]  1.272 lbs (577 g)
Male Weight [2]  1.431 lbs (649 g)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  12.5 %
Breeding Habitat [3]  Coastal cliffs and islands, Coastal marine
Wintering Geography [3]  Widespread Oceans
Wintering Habitat [3]  Pelagic
Diet [5]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [5]  60 %
Diet - Invertibrates [5]  40 %
Forages - Water Surface [5]  80 %
Forages - Underwater [5]  20 %
Female Maturity [4]  6 years
Male Maturity [4]  6 years


Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (115)

Important Bird Areas

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap


Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)[7]
Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)[12]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[7]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[7]


Range Map


North America; Oceania;

External References



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Hatch, SA, Nettleship, DN, 1998. Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). In: Poole, A., Gill, F. (Eds.), The Birds of North America, No. 361. The Birds of North America Inc., Philadelphia, PA
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
6British Trust for Ornithology
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8An estimate of summer food consumption of six seabird species in Iceland, K. Lilliendahl and J. Solmundsson, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54: 624–630. 1997
9Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository.
10Feeding Spectrum and Trophic Relationships of Short-finned Squid (Illex illecebrosus) in the Northwest Atlantic, Yu. M. Froerman, NAFO Sci. Coun. Studies, 7: 67-75 (1984)
11Seabird distribution, abundance and diets in the eastern and central Aleutian Islands, J. JAHNCKE, K. O. COYLE AND GEORGE L. HUNT, JR, Fish. Oceanogr. 14 (Suppl. 1), 160–177, 2005
12POTAPOV, E. 2011. Gyrfalcon diet: Spatial and temporal variation In R. T. Watson, T. J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (Eds.). Gyrfalcons and Ptarmigan in a Changing World. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA
13Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
14International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Ramsar Sites Information Service
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License