Puhatu

Location:Estonia
Area:31,425 acres (12,717 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Climate:View Climate Data
Köppen climate classification:Dfb (Climate: snow; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: warm summer)
Natura 2000 Data Sheet:View Data Sheet  Explanatory notes

Ecoregions

Sarmatic mixed forests

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 ABCD
     
Share75 %25 %40 %25 %15 %15 %5 %  
Soil TypeHaplic PodzolsGleyic PodzolsHaplic PodzolsCambic PodzolsFibric HistosolsEutric GleysolsGleyic PodzolsTerric HistosolsFibric Histosols
Topsoil TextureCoarseCoarseCoarseCoarseFineCoarseCoarseMediumFine
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm
DrainageSomewhat excessivePoorSomewhat excessiveSomewhat excessiveVery poorPoorPoorVery poorVery poor
Available Water Capacity15 m15 m15 m15 m150 m75 m15 m150 m150 m
Phase 1GravellyGravellyGravellyGravelly GravellyGravelly  
Root ObstacleNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cm
Impermeable LayerNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cm
Soil Water RegimeNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm over 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 11 monthWet within 40 cm depth for over 11 monthWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 40 cm depth for over 11 monthWet within 40 cm depth for over 11 monthWet within 80 cm over 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 11 monthWet within 40 cm depth for over 11 monthWet within 40 cm depth for over 11 month
Topsoil Properties
Gravel3 %2 %3 %3 %1 %10 %2 %28 %1 %
Sand87 %86 %87 %85 %20 %78 %86 %35 %20 %
Silt9 %10 %9 %10 %40 %13 %10 %33 %40 %
Clay4 %4 %4 %5 %40 %9 %4 %32 %40 %
USDA TextureLoamy sandLoamy sandLoamy sandLoamy sandClaySandy loamLoamy sandClay loamClay
Reference Bulk Density1.73 g/cm³1.73 g/cm³1.73 g/cm³1.7 g/cm³1.26 g/cm³1.6 g/cm³1.73 g/cm³1.32 g/cm³1.26 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.4 g/cm³1.31 g/cm³1.4 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³0.1 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.31 g/cm³0.28 g/cm³0.1 g/cm³
Organic Carbon2.18 %1.97 %2.18 %2.02 %33.63 %0.57 %1.97 %39.4 %33.63 %
PH4.44.44.44.34.36.34.45.64.3
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity101 cmol kg⁻¹52 cmol kg⁻¹101 cmol kg⁻¹78 cmol kg⁻¹45 cmol kg⁻¹48 cmol kg⁻¹52 cmol kg⁻¹45 cmol kg⁻¹45 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity9 cmol kg⁻¹6 cmol kg⁻¹9 cmol kg⁻¹5 cmol kg⁻¹77 cmol kg⁻¹6 cmol kg⁻¹6 cmol kg⁻¹87 cmol kg⁻¹77 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation11 %18 %11 %17 %62 %74 %18 %75 %62 %
Total Exchangeable Bases2.6 cmol kg⁻¹3.6 cmol kg⁻¹2.6 cmol kg⁻¹2.5 cmol kg⁻¹31.4 cmol kg⁻¹4.7 cmol kg⁻¹3.6 cmol kg⁻¹59.5 cmol kg⁻¹31.4 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium1 %1 %1 %0 %2 %2 %1 %1 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel4 %3 %4 %3 %2 %20 %3 %5 %2 %
Sand88 %85 %88 %86 %47 %64 %85 %52 %47 %
Silt8 %10 %8 %10 %26 %13 %10 %23 %26 %
Clay4 %5 %4 %4 %27 %23 %5 %25 %27 %
USDA TextureSandLoamy sandSandLoamy sandSandy clay loamSandy clay loamLoamy sandSandy clay loamSandy clay loam
Reference Bulk Density1.74 g/cm³1.7 g/cm³1.74 g/cm³1.73 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³1.43 g/cm³1.7 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.51 g/cm³1.54 g/cm³1.51 g/cm³1.57 g/cm³0.1 g/cm³1.55 g/cm³1.54 g/cm³0.18 g/cm³0.1 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.39 %0.91 %0.39 %0.51 %32.89 %0.3 %0.91 %38.46 %32.89 %
PH54.954.84.66.44.95.84.6
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity66 cmol kg⁻¹44 cmol kg⁻¹66 cmol kg⁻¹50 cmol kg⁻¹71 cmol kg⁻¹38 cmol kg⁻¹44 cmol kg⁻¹49 cmol kg⁻¹71 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity2 cmol kg⁻¹3 cmol kg⁻¹2 cmol kg⁻¹2 cmol kg⁻¹78 cmol kg⁻¹10 cmol kg⁻¹3 cmol kg⁻¹88 cmol kg⁻¹78 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation21 %21 %21 %21 %40 %81 %21 %96 %40 %
Total Exchangeable Bases1.5 cmol kg⁻¹1.7 cmol kg⁻¹1.5 cmol kg⁻¹1.5 cmol kg⁻¹27.4 cmol kg⁻¹6.9 cmol kg⁻¹1.7 cmol kg⁻¹81.8 cmol kg⁻¹27.4 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium3 %3 %3 %0 %1 %3 %3 %1 %1 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263