Ilmandu

Location:Estonia
Area:416 acres (168 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Dfb (Climate: snow; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: warm summer)
Natura 2000 Data Sheet:View Data Sheet  Explanatory notes

Ecoregions

Sarmatic mixed forests

Soils

Link to Map
Protected Area Boundary
 AB
   
Share 42 %33 %10 %8 %7 %
Soil TypeCalcaric RegosolsCalcaric CambisolsCalcic LuvisolsCalcaric RegosolsGleyic LuvisolsGleyic Cambisols
Topsoil TextureMediumMediumMediumMediumMediumMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm100 cm
DrainageModerately wellModerately wellModerately wellModerately wellPoorPoor
Available Water Capacity50 m50 m50 m50 m50 m50 m
Phase 1PetrocalcicPetrocalcicStonyPetrocalcicStonyPetrocalcic
Phase 2StonyStonyGravellyStonyGravellyStony
Root ObstacleNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cmNone to 80 cm
Impermeable Layer80 - 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cm80 - 150 cmNone to 150 cmNone to 150 cm
Soil Water RegimeWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm for 3 to 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthNot wet within 80 cm for over 3 months, nor wet within 40 cm for over 1 monthWet within 80 cm over 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 11 monthWet within 80 cm over 6 months, but not wet within 40 cm for over 11 month
Topsoil Properties
Gravel14 %6 %5 %14 %5 %4 %
Sand44 %36 %53 %44 %47 %45 %
Silt35 %43 %24 %35 %29 %36 %
Clay21 %21 %23 %21 %24 %19 %
USDA TextureLoamLoamSandy clay loamLoamLoamLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.41 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³1.42 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.37 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³1.53 g/cm³1.37 g/cm³1.54 g/cm³1.41 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.75 %0.65 %0.51 %0.75 %0.83 %1 %
PH887.786.36.4
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity45 cmol kg⁻¹52 cmol kg⁻¹55 cmol kg⁻¹45 cmol kg⁻¹46 cmol kg⁻¹38 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity17 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹14 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹9 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation100 %100 %100 %100 %93 %85 %
Total Exchangeable Bases26.8 cmol kg⁻¹24.3 cmol kg⁻¹17.1 cmol kg⁻¹26.8 cmol kg⁻¹14.9 cmol kg⁻¹8.2 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate15 %7 %7.4 %15 %0 %0 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium2 %1 %1 %2 %2 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity0.2 dS m-10.4 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.2 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel18 %10 %10 %18 %6 %18 %
Sand40 %34 %47 %40 %39 %39 %
Silt35 %43 %23 %35 %27 %34 %
Clay25 %23 %30 %25 %34 %27 %
USDA TextureLoamLoamSandy clay loamLoamClay loamClay loam
Reference Bulk Density1.37 g/cm³1.38 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.37 g/cm³1.33 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.5 g/cm³1.45 g/cm³1.67 g/cm³1.5 g/cm³1.65 g/cm³1.6 g/cm³
Organic Carbon0.47 %0.43 %0.3 %0.47 %0.28 %0.47 %
PH8.18.17.98.176.7
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity52 cmol kg⁻¹54 cmol kg⁻¹50 cmol kg⁻¹52 cmol kg⁻¹44 cmol kg⁻¹37 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity15 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹17 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹16 cmol kg⁻¹11 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation100 %100 %100 %100 %99 %88 %
Total Exchangeable Bases36.5 cmol kg⁻¹28.7 cmol kg⁻¹23.1 cmol kg⁻¹36.5 cmol kg⁻¹15.9 cmol kg⁻¹11.3 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate15 %8.7 %9.1 %15 %0.4 %0.1 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0.4 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium2 %1 %2 %2 %2 %2 %
Electrical Conductivity0.3 dS m-10.3 dS m-10.2 dS m-10.3 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263