Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Turdidae > Turdus > Turdus torquatus
 

Turdus torquatus (Ring Ouzel)

Wikipedia Abstract

The ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus) is a European member of the thrush family Turdidae. It is the mountain equivalent of the closely related common blackbird, and breeds in gullies, rocky areas or scree slopes.
View Wikipedia Record: Turdus torquatus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
19
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.4871
EDGE Score: 1.7024

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  109 grams
Birth Weight [2]  7.4 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Ectothermic [3]  10 %
Diet - Fruit [3]  30 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  30 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  30 %
Forages - Mid-High [3]  40 %
Forages - Understory [3]  40 %
Forages - Ground [3]  20 %
Clutch Size [5]  5
Incubation [4]  13 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  9 years
Migration [6]  Intercontinental
Wing Span [4]  16 inches (.4 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Persian desert basins Iran, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe Morocco Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ALTO SIL 108112 Spain  
Aggtelek Biosphere Reserve National Park II 59233 Hungary
Alpi Marittime 83205 Italy  
Alto Garda Bresciano 53192 Italy  
Ammergebirge mit Kienberg und Schwarzenberg sowie Falkenstein 74415 Germany  
Bassigny 194044 France  
Bayerischer Wald National Park II 59790 Germany
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
COTIELLA - SIERRA FERRERA 62948 Spain  
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Camargue 546256 France  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Costa Sudoeste 183883 Portugal  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
Dolomiti Feltrine e Bellunesi 77549 Italy  
Dolomiti del Cadore e del Comelico 173952 Italy  
EL TURBÓN Y SIERRA DE SÍS 60101 Spain  
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS 615652 Greece      
Eastern Beskid National Park II 68484 Poland  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
GORGES DE LA DORDOGNE 113760 France  
Gorges de la Loire 145350 France  
Gorges de la Sioule 64420 France  
Gorges de la Truyère 53380 France  
Góry Slonne 135999 Poland  
HAUTES-VOSGES, HAUT-RHIN 58515 France  
Haut Val d'Allier 145560 France  
Hautes vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau 121620 France  
KENTRIKI RODOPI KAI KOILADA NESTOU 261804 Greece  
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
KOILADA TIMIOU PRODROMOU-MENOIKION 73269 Greece  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
LA VANOISE 132493 France  
LAS BATUECAS-SIERRA DE FRANCIA 74584 Spain  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNES VOLVI KAI LAGKADA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 66589 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LOS VALLES 79029 Spain  
Lake District High Fells 66717 England, United Kingdom
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Les Cévennes 227446 France  
Les Ecrins 227201 France  
MONTES UNIVERSALES - SIERRA DEL TREMEDAL 79316 Spain  
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
NOTIO DASIKO SYMPLEGMA EVROU 72341 Greece  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
OREINOS EVROS - KOILADA DEREIOU 120853 Greece  
OROS PARNASSOS 84965 Greece  
OROS TYMFI (GKAMILA) 67747 Greece  
Osogovo 59614 Bulgaria  
Ostoja Popradzka 143151 Poland  
POSETS - MALADETA 82205 Spain  
Parco Naturale Adamello 53676 Italy  
Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso 175751 Italy  
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi 56377 Italy  
Pays des Couzes 128132 France  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Pirin 99722 Bulgaria  
Planèze de Saint Flour 62374 France  
Plateau ardennais 186972 France  
Plateau de Valensole 110723 France  
Ponor 77541 Bulgaria  
Prespa National Park II 62043 Greece  
Préalpes de Grasse 57237 France  
Reserva de Ordesa-Vinamala Biosphere Reserve 127002 Spain  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Nevada Biosphere Reserve 424147 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Rila 200269 Bulgaria  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
RÍO HUERVA Y LAS PLANAS 74804 Spain  
SIERRA DE AYLLON 225747 Spain  
SIERRA DE GUADARRAMA 170724 Spain  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRA SUBBETICA 79212 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
SIERRAS DE SANTO DOMINGO Y CABALLERA Y RÍO ONSELLA 88167 Spain  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sologne bourbonnaise 55040 France  
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Sredna Gora 244788 Bulgaria  
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Tatry 51937 Poland  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
Trigrad-Mursalitsa 136717 Bulgaria  
Tzentralen Balkan 177099 Bulgaria  
VALLE DE SAN EMILIANO 137756 Spain  
VIÑAMALA 62053 Spain  
Vallée de la Loire de Iguerande à Decize 61208 France  
Vitosha 67608 Bulgaria  
Western Balkan 362801 Bulgaria  
Zapadni Rodopi 178482 Bulgaria  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Augstmatthorn Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Beskydy mountains Czech Republic A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
Bukovské hills Slovakia A1, B2, B3
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve Ukraine B2, B3
Central Balkan Bulgaria A1, A3, B2, B3, C1, C6
Central Valais between Sierre and Visp Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux France B3, C6
Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Massacre France B3, C6
Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or France B3, C6
Gorgany Ukraine B2, B3
Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Jeseniky mountains Czech Republic A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
Kočevsko-Kolpa Slovenia B2, B3
Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains) Czech Republic A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
La Brévine and Les Ponts-de-Martel Switzerland B2, B3
Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Malá Fatra Slovakia A1, B2, B3
Massif du Canigou-Carança France A4iv, B1iv, B2, B3, C5, C6
Mont Tendre Switzerland B2, B3
Moorfoot Hills United Kingdom B3
Nízke Tatry Slovakia A1, B2, B3
Peak District Moors United Kingdom B1i, B3, C3, C6
Pirin Bulgaria A3, B2, B3, C6
Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel Switzerland A3, B1iv, B2, B3
Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Pre-alpine region of Schwyz Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Prokletije Serbia A3, B2, B3
Puig Carlit et environs France B2, B3, C2, C6
Rila Bulgaria A3, B2, B3, C6
Simplon region Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Stara mountain-Vidlic Serbia B2, B3
Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest) Czech Republic A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
Tarvisio Forest Italy B2, B3, C6
Tatry Slovakia A1, A3, B2, B3
Triglav National Park Slovenia A3, B2, B3
Upper Toggenburg and Säntis Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Valley of Zermatt Switzerland A3, B2, B3
Velká Fatra Slovakia A1, B2, B3
Vitosha Mountain Bulgaria A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
Western Rhodopes Bulgaria B3, C6

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Hedera helix (Algerian ivy)[7]
Juniperus communis (Common Juniper)[8]
Juniperus phoenicea (Phoenician Juniper)[8]
Juniperus sabina (savin)[8]
Lumbricus rubellus <Unverified Name>[9]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[9]
Phlogophora meticulosa (Angle Shades Moth)[9]
Stenurella melanura[9]
Taxus baccata (Common yew)[10]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)2
Apus apus (Common Swift)2
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Carnation Tortrix)2
Coloeus monedula (Western Jackdaw)3
Corvus frugilegus (Rook)2
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)3
Ditula angustiorana (Red-barred Tortrix)2
Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog)2
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)2
Eupithecia intricata (Freyer’s Pug)2
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)2
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)2
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)2
Lanius collurio (Red-backed Shrike)2
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)2
Lullula arborea (Woodlark)2
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)3
Parus major (Great Tit)2
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)2
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)3
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)2
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)2
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)2
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)3
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)2
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)2
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)2
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)4
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)3
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)2
Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)2
Turdus iliacus (Redwing)4
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)7
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)3
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)5
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)7

Predators

Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)[9]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ceratophyllus borealis[11]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[11]
Dasypsyllus gallinulae gallinulae[11]
Dilepis undula[12]
Porrocaecum semiteres <Unverified Name>[12]
Taenia angulata <Unverified Name>[12]

Range Map

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4British Trust for Ornithology
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
7Birds and berries: a study of an ecological interaction. Calton, Great Britain, Snow B.K., Snow D.W., 1988, T & AD Poyser. 268 p.
8Geographical ecology and variation of plant-seed disperser interactions: southern Spanish junipers and frugivorous thrushes, Pedro Jordano, Vegetatio 107/108: 85-104, 1993.
9Ecology of Commanster
10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
11International Flea Database
12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access