Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Myrtales > Lythraceae > Trapa > Trapa natans
 

Trapa natans (Bull nut; European water chestnut; water chestnut; water chestnut, water nut)

Synonyms: Trapa acicularis; Trapa alatyrica; Trapa algeriensis; Trapa amurensis; Trapa annosa; Trapa annosa f. bicornis; Trapa annosa f. erecticornis; Trapa annosa f. pseudomuzzanensis; Trapa antennifera; Trapa araborum; Trapa arcuata; Trapa assamica; Trapa astrachanica; Trapa astrachanica var. caspica; Trapa bicornis var. quadrispinosa; Trapa brevicarpa; Trapa brevicarpa f. effigia; Trapa brevicarpa f. miniata; Trapa brevicarpa f. muzzanensoides; Trapa brevicarpa f. perexcelsa; Trapa brevicarpa f. quadrata; Trapa brevicarpa subsp. calosa; Trapa brevicarpa subsp. rubida; Trapa brevicarpa var. delicata; Trapa brevicarpa var. mirabila; Trapa carinthiaca; Trapa caspica; Trapa castanea; Trapa caucasica var. astrachanica; Trapa colchica; Trapa conocarpa; Trapa conocarpa f. flerovii; Trapa conocarpa subsp. laevigata; Trapa conocarpa var. pyramidalis; Trapa conocarpa var. suecica; Trapa cruciata; Trapa danubialis; Trapa europaea; Trapa fastigiata; Trapa flerovii; Trapa gracilipes; Trapa grozdovii; Trapa hankensis; Trapa hungarica; Trapa hyrcana; Trapa jankovicii; Trapa kasachstanica; Trapa kashmirensis; Trapa kazakorum; Trapa kozhevnikoviorum; Trapa krauselii; Trapa laevis; Trapa longicarpa f. alticarpa; Trapa longicarpa f. amplicornis; Trapa longicarpa f. arcuata; Trapa longicarpa f. bicornis; Trapa longicarpa f. brevicola; Trapa longicarpa f. columnifera; Trapa longicarpa f. concamerata; Trapa longicarpa f. coronatoides; Trapa longicarpa f. depressa; Trapa longicarpa f. elata; Trapa longicarpa f. elongata; Trapa longicarpa f. falcata; Trapa longicarpa f. perangusticornis; Trapa longicarpa f. producticarpa; Trapa longicarpa f. pseudomuzzanensis; Trapa longicarpa f. subcoronata; Trapa longicarpa f. tesselata; Trapa longicarpa f. turgida; Trapa longicarpa subsp. perlongicornis; Trapa longicarpa subsp. valida; Trapa longicarpa var. contortula; Trapa longicarpa var. loricata; Trapa longicarpa var. mammeata; Trapa longicarpa var. rubra; Trapa longicarpa var. spatiosa; Trapa longicornis; Trapa macropoda; Trapa macropoda var. bispinosa; Trapa macrorhiza; Trapa maeotica; Trapa maleevii; Trapa manschurica; Trapa media; Trapa media var. pseudorossica; Trapa metschorica; Trapa natans f. quadrispinosa; Trapa natans f. suecica; Trapa natans var. amurensis; Trapa natans var. carinthiaca; Trapa natans var. clipeata; Trapa natans var. cruciata; Trapa natans var. egregia; Trapa natans var. macrocarpa; Trapa natans var. media; Trapa natans var. quadrispinosa; Trapa natans var. vulgata; Trapa nedoluzhkoi; Trapa numidica; Trapa okensis; Trapa pectinata; Trapa pseudocolchica; Trapa pseudorossica; Trapa pyramidalis; Trapa quadricornis; Trapa quadrispinosa; Trapa raciborskii; Trapa rossica; Trapa saissanica; Trapa sajanensis; Trapa septentrionalis; Trapa sibirica; Trapa sibirica var. saissanica; Trapa spryginii; Trapa tranzschelii; Trapa turbinata; Trapa ucrainica; Trapa uralensis; Trapa wolgensis

Infraspecies

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Trapa natans

Invasive Species

Trapa natans, commomly known as water chestnut, is an annual plant introduced from Asia and has become abundant in the northeastern United States where it creates a nuisance in lakes, ponds, canals and other slow-moving water. Trapa natans grows best in shallow, nutrient-rich lakes and rivers and is generally found in waters with a pH range of 6.7 to 8.2 and alkalinity of 12 to 128 mg/L of calcium carbonate. Trapa natans out-competes native plants for sunlight and spreads either by the rosettes detaching from their stems and floating to another area, or more often by the nuts being swept by currents or waves to other parts of the lake or river.
View ISSG Record: Trapa natans

Attributes

Width [1]  10 inches (0.25 m)
Light Preference [2]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [2]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Rich
Soil Moisture [2]  Submerged
Edible [1]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [1]  Hermaphrodite
Hazards [1]  The raw seed contains toxins but that these are destroyed in the cooking process;
Lifespan [1]  Perennial
Structure [3]  Herb
View Plants For A Future Record : Trapa natans

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Eastern Iberia Andorra, France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Okavango Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Floodplain Rivers and Wetland Complexes    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alte Elster und Riecke Teil I und II 273 Germany  
Alte Spreemündung 267 Germany  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Big Kokshaga State Nature Reserve 55732 Mari El, Russia    
Bodrogzug–Kopasz-hegy–Taktaköz 54874 Hungary  
Bolonsky State Nature Reserve 256001 Khabarovsk, Russia
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Boschi del Ticino 50788 Italy  
Canneti del Lago Maggiore 561 Italy  
Cserebökényi-puszták 69091 Hungary  
Dahmetal 1970 Germany  
Dévaványai-sík 62065 Hungary  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - ALYKI KITROUS 73260 Greece  
DELTA AXIOU - LOUDIA - ALIAKMONA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI - AXIOUPOLI 83216 Greece  
Delta del Po 61806 Italy  
DELTA EVROU 31031 Greece  
DELTA EVROU KAI DYTIKOS VRACHIONAS 24359 Greece  
Dolina Srodkowej Wisly 76054 Poland  
Dune di Massenzatica 128 Italy  
ETHNIKOS DRYMOS PRESPON 65762 Greece  
Fiume Po - tratto vercellese alessandrino 34859 Italy  
Fiume Po da Rio Boriacco a Bosco Ospizio 14018 Italy  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Foce dell'Isonzo - Isola della Cona 6593 Italy  
Golena del Po di Gualtieri, Guastalla e Luzzara 2768 Italy  
Grady Odrzanskie 49419 Poland  
Hopersky State Nature Reserve 40031 Voronezh, Russia    
Kargowskie Zakola Odry 7587 Poland  
Kesznyéten 15841 Hungary  
Khinganskiy State Nature Reserve 239873 Amur, Russia
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Komsomolsky Zapovednik Ia 159168 Khabarovsk, Russia
Lago di Chiusi 1982 Italy  
Lago di Varese 4295 Italy  
Laguna di Venezia 136417 Italy  
Lampertheimer Altrhein 1297 Germany  
Legi Odrzanskie 44477 Poland  
LIMNES KAI LIMNOTHALASSES TIS THRAKIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 72787 Greece  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNES VISTONIS, ISMARIS - LIMNOTHALASSES PORTO LAGOS, ALYKI PTELEA, XIROLIMNI, KARATZA 45016 Greece  
LIMNES VOLVI KAI LAGKADA - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 66589 Greece  
LIMNI KASTORIAS 11694 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
Litorale di Gallipoli e Isola S. Andrea 17312 Italy  
Mandra - Poda 15162 Bulgaria  
Medzibodrožie 87915 Slovakia  
Meshchersky National Park 254553 Ryazan, Russia
Miklósfai Mórichelyi-halastavak 1112 Hungary  
Mordovsky Zapovednik Ia 79439 Mordovia, Russia
Norsky State Nature Reserve 521807 Amur, Russia
Oberlausitzer Heide - und Teichlandschaft Nature Reserve IV 32467 Germany  
Oka Biosphere Reserve 137746 Ryazan, Russia
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Orlovsky Polesie National Park 192112 Orel, Russia
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Palude Brabbia 1137 Italy  
Palude del Busatello 1095 Italy  
Paludi di Ostiglia 304 Italy  
Parco Regionale Campo dei Fiori 3207 Italy  
Parco Regionale Oglio Sud 9941 Italy  
Prisursky State Nature Reserve 22605 Chuvash, Russia
Puszcza Niepolomicka 29065 Poland  
Riserva Regionale Lanca di Gerole 2916 Italy  
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Sacca di Goro, Po di Goro, Valle Dindona, Foce del Po di Volano 12039 Italy  
Samarskaya Luka National Park 314283 Samara, Russia
Schwenower Forst 1950 Germany  
Smolny National Park 89909 Mordovia, Russia
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Spreewiesen südlich Beeskow 1194 Germany  
Srebarna 3579 Bulgaria  
Stawy Lezczok 1448 Poland  
Ugra National Park 243703 Kaluga, Russia
Vallazza 1310 Italy  
Valli del Mincio 4814 Italy  

Distribution

North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
2Ellenberg, H., Weber, H.E., Dull, R., Wirth, V., Werner, W., Paulissen, D. (1991) Zeigerwerte von Pflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Scripta Geobotanica 18, 1–248
3Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access