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Vaccinium myrtillus (myrtle blueberry; myrtle whortleberry; whortleberry)

Wikipedia Abstract

Vaccinium myrtillus is a species of shrub with edible fruit of blue color, commonly called "bilberry", "whortleberry" or European blueberry. It has much in common with the American blueberry (Vaccinium cyanococcus). It is more precisely called common bilberry or blue whortleberry, to distinguish it from other Vaccinium relatives. Regional names include blaeberry, hurtleberry, huckleberry, winberry and fraughan.
View Wikipedia Record: Vaccinium myrtillus

Infraspecies

Attributes

Height [3]  8 inches (0.2 m)
Width [3]  12 inches (0.3 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Low
Light Preference [5]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [5]  Very Acid
Soil Fertility [5]  Infertile
Soil Moisture [5]  Moist
Bee Flower Color [2]  Blue-Green
Flower Color [2]  Red
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Bees, Flies, Lepidoptera, Bats
Structure [3]  Shrub
Usage [3]  A green dye is obtained from the leaves and the fruit and is used to colour fabrics; A blue or black dye is obtained from the fruit; This can be used as an ink;
View Plants For A Future Record : Vaccinium myrtillus

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Afonydd Cleddau/ Cleddau Rivers 1855 Wales, United Kingdom  
Andakill Protected Habitat Area 7626 Iceland      
Bagni di Masino - Pizzo Badile - Val di Mello - Val Torrone - Piano di Preda Rossa 23828 Italy  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Beinn Dearg 34221 Scotland, United Kingdom
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Ben Alder and Aonach Beag 16453 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ben Wyvis 13313 Scotland, United Kingdom
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Border Mires, Kielder – Butterburn 29286 England, United Kingdom
Caenlochan 12860 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Colli Euganei - Monte Lozzo - Monte Ricco 37303 Italy  
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Disgrazia - Sissone 7438 Italy  
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Drumochter Hills 23340 Scotland, United Kingdom
East Caithness Cliffs 1094 Scotland, United Kingdom
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Fannich Hills 23816 Scotland, United Kingdom
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Glen Tanar 10329 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ingleborough Complex 14256 England, United Kingdom
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Merrick Kells 21494 Scotland, United Kingdom
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Moffat Hills 7146 Scotland, United Kingdom
Monte di Scerscen - Ghiacciai di Scerscen - Monte Motta 23885 Italy  
Monte Generoso 586 Italy  
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moorfoot Hills 21001 Scotland, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi 56377 Italy  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Rhos Llawr-cwrt 114 Wales, United Kingdom  
Rila 200269 Bulgaria  
Roman Wall Loughs 1691 England, United Kingdom  
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schwarzer See 69 Germany  
SIERRA DE MONCAYO - LOS FAYOS - SIERRA DE ARMAS 44956 Spain  
Simonside Hills 5146 England, United Kingdom  
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Uist Machair 8482 Scotland, United Kingdom
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Teufelssee und Urwald Fünfeichen 388 Germany  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Stiperstones and The Hollies 1486 England, United Kingdom  
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Val Caffaro 3059 Italy  
Val di Togno - Pizzo Scalino 7784 Italy  
Val Grigna 7099 Italy  
Valle dei Ratti - Cime di Gaiazzo 3368 Italy  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  

Ecosystems

Predators

Acleris caledoniana[6]
Acleris hyemana[7]
Acleris lipsiana[6]
Acleris maccana (Marbled Dog’s-tooth Tortrix)[6]
Acronicta alni (Alder Moth)[6]
Acronicta auricoma (Scarce Dagger)[8]
Acronicta menyanthidis (Light Knot Grass)[6]
Actebia fennica (black army cutworm)[8]
Aglais io <Unverified Name>[7]
Agrochola helvola (Flounced Chestnut)[6]
Alcis repandata (Mottled Beauty)[6]
Aleyrodes lonicerae[7]
Anaplectoides prasina (green arches)[6]
Anarta cordigera (small dark yellow underwing)[8]
Anarta melanopa (broad-bordered white underwing)[6]
Anarta myrtilli (Beautiful Yellow Underwing Moth)[6]
Ancylis myrtillana[6]
Andrena lapponica[7]
Angerona prunaria[6]
Aphelia viburnana <Unverified Name>[7]
Aphelia viburniana[6]
Aphis vaccinii[8]
Aporophyla lueneburgensis (Northern Deep-brown Dart)[8]
Apotomis sauciana (Sutherland Long-cloak)[6]
Arctorthezia cataphracta (alpine ensign scale)[9]
Asterobemisia carpini[8]
Athrips pruinosella[6]
Aulacorthum rufum[8]
Autographa bractea (Gold Spangle)[8]
Autographa pulchrina (Beautiful Golden Y)[6]
Bibio lanigerus[7]
Bison bonasus (European bison)[10]
Boloria selene (Silver-bordered fritillary)[8]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[7]
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)[7]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[7]
Bombus terrestris (Large Earth Humble-bee)[7]
Caliroa annulipes <Unverified Name>[8]
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)[6]
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)[6]
Capra caucasica cylindricornis (East Caucasian tur)[11]
Capua vulgana[7]
Carsia sororiata (Manchester Treble-Bar)[6]
Cepphis advenaria (Little Thorn Moth)[6]
Cerastis leucographa (White-marked)[6]
Cerastis rubricosa (Red Chestnut)[6]
Ceroplastes sinensis (hard wax scale)[9]
Chersotis cuprea[6]
Chionaspis salicis (black willow bark louse)[9]
Chionomys nivalis (European snow vole)[12]
Chloroclysta citrata <Unverified Name>[8]
Chloroclysta concinnata <Unverified Name>[8]
Chloroclysta miata[6]
Chloroclysta truncata <Unverified Name>[8]
Chloroclystis debiliata[6]
Cleora cinctaria (Ringed Carpet)[6]
Clepsis senecionana (Rustic Tortrix)[6]
Closterotomus biclavatus[7]
Coccomyces leptideus[13]
Coleophora vacciniella[6]
Colias palaeno (Moorland Clouded Yellow)[13]
Colias tyche (Pale Arctic Clouded Yellow)[13]
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)[6]
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)[7]
Conistra vaccinii (Chestnut)[6]
Coscinia cribraria (Speckled Footman)[8]
Crocallis elinguaria (Scalloped Oak Moth)[6]
Cryptocephalus labiatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Cyclophora linearia (Clay Triple-lines)[8]
Cytospora vaccinii[13]
Dama dama (fallow deer)[14]
Dasystoma salicella <Unverified Name>[8]
Deileptenia ribeata (Satin Beauty Moth)[6]
Denisia subaquilea <Unverified Name>[8]
Derephysia foliacea[8]
Diarsia brunnea (Purple Clay)[8]
Diarsia dahlii (Barred Chestnut)[8]
Diarsia mendica (Ingrailed Clay)[8]
Diaspidiotus bavaricus[8]
Diaspidiotus zonatus[9]
Diurnea lipsiella <Unverified Name>[7]
Diurnea phryganella[6]
Dolba hyloeus (Pawpaw Sphinx)[6]
Dysstroma truncata (Common Marbled Carpet Moth)[7]
Elasmucha ferrugata[8]
Ematurga atomaria (Common Heath Moth)[6]
Ennomos autumnaria (Large Thorn)[6]
Entephria caesiata (Grey Mountain Carpet)[6]
Epagoge grotiana[6]
Epinotia mercuriana[6]
Epirrita autumnata <Unverified Name>[8]
Epirrita dilutata <Unverified Name>[8]
Epirrita filigrammaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Eriococcus uvaeursi (Linnaeus' felt scale)[9]
Eriogaster arbusculae[6]
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)[6]
Eristalis picea <Unverified Name>[7]
Eristalis similis <Unverified Name>[7]
Eulecanium distinguendum[9]
Eulecanium franconicum (heather soft scale)[8]
Eulecanium tiliae (nut scale)[8]
Eulia ministrana[8]
Eulithis populata (Northern Spinach Moth)[6]
Eulithis testata (chevron moth)[6]
Eupithecia nanata (Narrow-winged Pug)[6]
Eupithecia vulgata (Common Pug Moth)[6]
Eurois occulta (great gray dart)[6]
Gibbera elegantula[13]
Gibbera myrtilli[13]
Globiceps fulvicollis[8]
Griselda myrtillana <Unverified Name>[8]
Gynaephora selenitica[6]
Hydriomena furcata (July Highflyer)[6]
Hypena crassalis <Unverified Name>[7]
Hypodryas iduna[6]
Hyppa rectilinea (Saxon)[8]
Idaea straminata (Plain Wave)[8]
Incurvaria oehlmanniella <Unverified Name>[8]
Itame brunneata[6]
Jaapiella vacciniorum[8]
Jodis lactearia (Little Emerald)[8]
Jodis putata[6]
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)[8]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[9]
Lithomoia solidaginis (goldenrod brindle)[6]
Lithophane hepatica[6]
Lithophane lamda (Nonconformist)[6]
Lozotaenia forsterana[6]
Luzulaspis frontalis (long-headed soft scale)[9]
Lycia lapponaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Lyrurus tetrix (Eurasian Black Grouse)[15]
Macrothylacia rubi (Fox Moth)[6]
Martes zibellina (Sable)[16]
Metriostola vacciniella[6]
Micropterix aureatella[7]
Monilinia baccarum[13]
Morenoina rhododendri[13]
Muscardinus avellanarius (hazel dormouse)[17]
Naohidemyces vaccinii[13]
Nematopogon adansoniella[7]
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)[6]
Olethreutes bipunctana[6]
Olethreutes metallicana[8]
Ophiola decumana <Unverified Name>[7]
Orthezia urticae (ensign coccid)[8]
Orthosia gothica (Hebrew Character)[8]
Orthosia incerta (Clouded Drab)[6]
Orthotaenia undulana[7]
Papestra biren (Glaucous Shears)[6]
Paradiarsia sobrina <Unverified Name>[8]
Parasemia plantaginis (Wood Tiger Moth)[6]
Parasyrphus lineolus <Unverified Name>[7]
Parasyrphus punctulatus[7]
Pasiphila debiliata <Unverified Name>[8]
Peliococcus calluneti (heather mealybug)[9]
Perizoma didymata <Unverified Name>[8]
Pezicula myrtillina[13]
Phragmatobia fuliginosa (ruby tiger moth)[6]
Phyllodesma ilicifolia (Small lappet moth)[6]
Phyllostroma myrtilli (heather cushion scale)[9]
Plagodis pulveraria (Barred Umber Moth)[6]
Plebejus argus (Silver-studded Blue)[8]
Polia bombycina (Pale Shining Brown)[8]
Polia conspicua[6]
Polia trimaculosa[6]
Pristiphora mollis <Unverified Name>[8]
Pristiphora quercus <Unverified Name>[8]
Prolita sexpunctella (Long-horned Flat-back)[8]
Protolampra sobrina (Cousin German)[8]
Pseudatemelia josephinae <Unverified Name>[8]
Pseudomassaria vaccinii[13]
Psyche casta[6]
Pulvinaria peregrina[9]
Puto janetscheki (alpine mealybug)[9]
Quadraspidiotus zonatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Rheumaptera hastata (spear-marked black)[8]
Rheumaptera undulata[6]
Rhopobota myrtillana[6]
Rhopobota naevana (Holly tortrix moth)[8]
Rhopobota ustomaculana (Loch Rannoch Tortrix)[8]
Scopula frigidaria[6]
Scopula ternata (Smoky Wave Moth)[6]
Scopula virgulata[6]
Seimatosporium vaccinii[13]
Semiothisa carbonaria <Unverified Name>[8]
Spatalistis bifasciana[6]
Sphinx gordius (apple sphinx)[6]
Stigmella myrtillella[8]
Sus scrofa (wild boar)[7]
Sympistis lapponica[6]
Syngrapha interrogationis (Scarce Silver Y)[6]
Terriera cladophila[13]
Theria primaria (Early Moth)[8]
Trichiura crataegi (Pale Eggar)[6]
Vacciniina optilete (Cranberry Blue)[6]
Valdensinia heterodoxa[7]
Xanthorhoe annotinata[6]
Xanthorhoe incursata[6]
Xanthorhoe spadicearia (Red Twin-spot Carpet Moth)[6]
Xestia alpicola <Unverified Name>[8]
Xestia baja (Dotted Clay)[6]
Xylena exsoleta (Sword-grass)[6]
Zygaena exulans (Mountain Burnet)[6]

Providers

Pollinated by 
Aglais io <Unverified Name>[7]
Andrena fulva (Tawny Mining Bee)[13]
Andrena haemorrhoa (Early Mining Bee)[13]
Andrena lapponica[7]
Andrena nigroaenea[13]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[13]
Bibio lanigerus[7]
Bombus lapidarius (Stone Humble-bee)[13]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[7]
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)[7]
Bombus pratorum (Early-nesting Humble-bee)[7]
Bombus terrestris (Large Earth Humble-bee)[7]
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)[13]
Eristalis lineata[7]
Eristalis picea <Unverified Name>[7]
Eristalis similis <Unverified Name>[7]
Formica rufa (European red wood ant)[13]
Gonia picea (Red-headed Gonia)[13]
Lasius niger (Black garden ant)[13]
Myrmica ruginodis (Red Field Ant)[13]
Nymphalis io[13]
Parasyrphus lineolus <Unverified Name>[7]
Parasyrphus punctulatus[7]
Sicus ferrugineus[13]
Vespula vulgaris (English wasp)[13]

Consumers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cortinarius bolaris (Dappled Webcap)[13]
Oidiodendron maius[13]
Parasitized by 
Coccomyces leptideus[13]
Exobasidium myrtilli[13]
Melampyrum sylvaticum[13]
Monilinia baccarum[13]
Naohidemyces vaccinii[13]
Podosphaera myrtillina[13]
Valdensinia heterodoxa[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Distribution

Bassegi Zapovednik; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000) 2Arnold SEJ, Faruq S, Savolainen V, McOwan PW, Chittka L, 2010 FReD: The Floral Reflectance Database — A Web Portal for Analyses of Flower Colour. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14287. 3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 4PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004) 5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999) 6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 7Ecology of Commanster 8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 10Food eaten by the free-living European bison in Białowieża Forest, Zofia GĘBCZYŃSKA, Marek GĘBCZYŃSKI and Ewa MARTYNOWICZ, Acta Theriologica 36 (3-4), 307-313, 1991. 11Capra cylindricornis, Paul J. Weinberg, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 695, pp. 1–9 (2002) 12SNOW VOLE - Chionomys nivalis (Martins 1842), Janeau G., Aulagnier S., IBEX J.M.E. 4:1997 13Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 14Dama dama, George A. Feldhamer, Kelly C. Farris-Renner, and Celeste M. Barker, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 317, pp. 1-8 (1988) 15Tornberg, Risto, Pekka Helle, and Erkki Korpimaki. "Vulnerability of black grouse hens to goshawk predation: result of food supply or predation facilitation?" Oecologia 166.3 (2011): 577+. Academic OneFile. Web. 15 July 2014. 16Summer diet of the sable Martes zibellina in the Middle Yenisei taiga, Siberia, Marcin BRZEZIŃSKI, Acta Theriologica 39 (1): 103-107, 1994. 17Juškaitis R. 2008. The Common Dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius: Ecology, Population Structure and Dynamics. Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University Publishers, Vilnius.
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Ramsar Sites Information Service Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
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