Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Malpighiales > Salicaceae > Populus > Populus tremula

Populus tremula (European aspen)

Synonyms: Populus australis; Populus cilicica; Populus monticola; Populus oxyodonta; Populus pendula; Populus repanda; Populus stricta; Populus supina; Populus tremula f. flagelliformis; Populus tremula f. parvifolia; Populus tremula f. sallensis; Populus tremula subsp. microtremula; Populus tremula var. microtremula; Tremula vulgaris

Wikipedia Abstract

Populus tremula, commonly called aspen, common aspen, Eurasian aspen, European aspen, or quaking aspen, is a species of poplar native to cool temperate regions of Europe and Asia, from Iceland and the British Isles east to Kamchatka, north to inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and northern Russia, and south to central Spain, Turkey, the Tian Shan, North Korea, and northern Japan. It also occurs at one site in northwest Africa in Algeria. In the south of its range, it occurs at high altitudes in mountains.
View Wikipedia Record: Populus tremula


Height [2]  59 feet (18 m)
Width [2]  33 feet (10 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  High
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium
Shade Percentage [1]  80 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 6 Low Temperature: -10 F° (-23.3 C°) → 0 F° (-17.8 C°)
Light Preference [5]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [5]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [5]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [5]  Moist
Water Use [1]  High to Moderate
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Dioecious
Janka Hardness [3]  380 lbf (172 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [6]  0.374
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  A very fast growing and wind resistant tree, it can be planted to provide a shelterbelt; Trees can also be planted to improve heavy clay soils in neglected woodlands; Wood - very soft, elastic, easily split, rather woolly in texture, without smell or taste, of low flammability, not durable, very resistant to abrasion. It makes a high quality paper and is also used to make a very good charcoal11, 21, 46, 100, 115].
View Plants For A Future Record : Populus tremula

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Breckland 18652 England, United Kingdom
Burnham Beeches 946 England, United Kingdom  
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen 10186 Wales, United Kingdom
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Killarney National Park II 25482 Ireland
Kinloch and Kyleakin Hills 13015 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Monte Generoso 586 Italy  
Monti del Gennargentu 110493 Italy  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Rochdale Canal 63 England, United Kingdom
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
SIERRA DE AYLLON 225747 Spain  
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ukrainskii Stepnoi Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik Ia 2920 Ukraine  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  



Acalyptus carpini[7]
Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale <Unverified Name>[7]
Aceria varia <Unverified Name>[7]
Achlya flavicornis (Yellow Horned)[8]
Acleris maximana[8]
Acronicta alni (Alder Moth)[8]
Acronicta auricoma (Scarce Dagger)[8]
Acronicta euphorbiae (Sweet Gale Moth)[8]
Acronicta leporina (miller)[8]
Acronicta megacephala (Poplar Grey)[8]
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)[8]
Aculus dispar <Unverified Name>[7]
Aegeria melanocephala[8]
Agrochola circellaris (Brick)[8]
Agrochola helvola (Flounced Chestnut)[8]
Agromyza albitarsis[7]
Amauronematus puniceus <Unverified Name>[7]
Ametastegia albipes <Unverified Name>[7]
Ampedus sanguinolentus <Unverified Name>[7]
Amphipyra berbera (Svensson's Copper Underwing)[8]
Anacampsis populella[8]
Anaplectoides prasina (green arches)[8]
Ancylis laetana[8]
Ancylis tineana[8]
Apatura ilia (Lesser Purple Emperor)[8]
Apatura iris (Purple Emperor Butterfly)[8]
Apocheima pilosaria <Unverified Name>[7]
Apotomis inundana[8]
Archiearis notha (Light Orange Underwing)[8]
Aulagromyza tremulae[9]
Basidiodendron caesiocinereum[9]
Batrachedra praeangusta[8]
Bison bonasus (European bison)[10]
Biston strataria (Oak Beauty)[7]
Brachionycha nubeculosa (Rannoch Sprawler)[8]
Brachyarthrum limitatum[7]
Brachylomia viminalis (Minor Shoulder-knot)[7]
Brachyopa pilosa[7]
Brachyopa scutellaris[7]
Byctiscus betulae (Hazel Leaf Roller)[11]
Byctiscus populi[7]
Cabera exanthemata (Common Wave Moth)[8]
Cabera pusaria (Common White Wave Moth)[8]
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)[8]
Camarotoscena speciosa[7]
Capra sibirica (Siberian ibex)[12]
Catocala adultera[8]
Catocala fraxini (Blue Underwing)[8]
Catocala nupta (Red Underwing moth)[7]
Cerura vinula (Puss Moth)[8]
Chaitophorus albus <Unverified Name>[7]
Chaitophorus populeti[7]
Chaitophorus tremulae[7]
Chalcoides aurea <Unverified Name>[7]
Chalcoides nitidula <Unverified Name>[7]
Chionaspis salicis (black willow bark louse)[13]
Chloroclysta miata[8]
Chloroclysta siterata (Red-green Carpet)[8]
Chrysomela populi <Unverified Name>[7]
Chrysomela tremula <Unverified Name>[7]
Chrysomela tremulae <Unverified Name>[11]
Ciboria caucus (Alder Goblet)[9]
Cleora cinctaria (Ringed Carpet)[8]
Clostera anachoreta (Scarce Chocolate-tip)[8]
Clostera anastomosis[8]
Clostera curtula (Chocolate-tip)[8]
Clostera pigra (Small Chocolate-tip)[8]
Colobochyla salicalis (European Lesser Belle)[8]
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)[8]
Contarinia petioli[7]
Contarinia tremulae[7]
Corticium erikssonii[9]
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)[7]
Cossus cossus (Goat Moth)[8]
Crepidodera aurata <Unverified Name>[7]
Crepidodera aurea <Unverified Name>[7]
Crepidodera fulvicornis <Unverified Name>[7]
Crepidodera nitidula <Unverified Name>[7]
Crepidotus cinnabarinus[9]
Crocallis elinguaria (Scalloped Oak Moth)[8]
Cryptocephalus frontalis <Unverified Name>[7]
Cryptocephalus parvulus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cryptocephalus sexpunctatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cryptorhynchus lapathi[7]
Cydia corollana[8]
Dasineura populeti[7]
Diaphora mendica <Unverified Name>[7]
Diaspidiotus gigas <Unverified Name>[13]
Diaspidiotus lenticularis[13]
Diurnea fagella[7]
Diurnea lipsiella <Unverified Name>[7]
Dorytomus affinis[7]
Dorytomus dejeani[7]
Dorytomus longimanus[7]
Dorytomus taeniatus[7]
Dorytomus tortrix[7]
Dorytomus tremulae[7]
Dothiora sphaeroides[9]
Ectoedemia argyropeza[8]
Efibula deflectens[9]
Egle ciliata[7]
Egle muscaria <Unverified Name>[7]
Elasmostethus interstinctus[7]
Elasmucha grisea <Unverified Name>[7]
Eligmodonta ziczac (Pebble Prominent)[7]
Ellescus scanicus[7]
Enargia paleacea (Angle-striped Sallow)[8]
Eotetranychus populi[7]
Epinotia cinereana[7]
Epinotia maculana[8]
Epinotia nisella[8]
Epione paralellaria <Unverified Name>[7]
Epione vespertaria[7]
Epirranthis diversata[8]
Epirrita autumnata <Unverified Name>[7]
Epirrita christyi <Unverified Name>[7]
Epirrita dilutata <Unverified Name>[7]
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)[8]
Eriophyes diversipunctatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Eriophyes populi <Unverified Name>[7]
Erynnis icelus (Dreamy Dusky Wing)[9]
Eucosma nitidulana[8]
Eulecanium douglasi (currant soft scale)[13]
Eulecanium tiliae (nut scale)[7]
Eulecanium transvittatum[7]
Eulithis populata (Northern Spinach Moth)[8]
Eulithis testata (chevron moth)[8]
Eupithecia subfuscata (gray pug)[7]
Eurois occulta (great gray dart)[8]
Euura amerinae <Unverified Name>[7]
Euura atra <Unverified Name>[7]
Excipularia fusispora[9]
Fibrodontia gossypina[9]
Furcula bifida[8]
Furcula furcula (Sallow Kitten)[8]
Fuscoporia ferruginosa (Rusty Porecrust)[9]
Gelechia nigra[8]
Gibberifera simplana[8]
Gluphisia crenata (Dusky Marbled Brown)[8]
Glyphium elatum[9]
Gonioctena decemnotata <Unverified Name>[7]
Gonioctena viminalis <Unverified Name>[7]
Graphiphora augur (Double Dart)[8]
Gynaephora selenitica[8]
Gypsonoma neglectana[8]
Gypsonoma nitidulana <Unverified Name>[7]
Gypsonoma sociana[8]
Hammerschmidtia ferruginea <Unverified Name>[7]
Harmandia loewi <Unverified Name>[7]
Harmandiola cavernosa[7]
Harmandiola globuli[7]
Harmandiola populi[7]
Harmandiola pustulans[7]
Harmandiola tremulae[11]
Hedya salicella[7]
Helicomyia saliciperda <Unverified Name>[7]
Heterarthrus ochropoda <Unverified Name>[7]
Hexomyza schineri[7]
Hohenbuehelia reniformis[9]
Hypodryas maturna (Scarce fritillary)[8]
Hypoxylon petriniae[9]
Idiocerus fulgidus <Unverified Name>[7]
Idiocerus laminatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Idiocerus populi[7]
Idiocerus tremulae[7]
Ionomidotis fulvotingens[9]
Ipimorpha subtusa (Olive)[8]
Junghuhnia nitida[9]
Kybos populi[7]
Lacanobia contigua (Beautiful Brocade)[8]
Lacanobia thalassina (Pale-shouldered Brocade)[7]
Lamellocossus terebra[8]
Lamia textor[7]
Laothoe amurensis (Aspen Hawk-moth)[8]
Laothoe populi (Poplar Hawk-moth)[8]
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)[8]
Lasioptera populnea[7]
Lenzites betulina (Birch Mazegill)[9]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[13]
Leptura aurulenta[7]
Leucoma salicis (White Satin Moth)[8]
Leucoptera sinuella[8]
Limenitis archippus (viceroy)[9]
Limenitis arthemis (white admiral)[9]
Limenitis populi (Poplar Admiral)[8]
Linospora ceuthocarpa[9]
Lobophora halterata (Seraphim)[8]
Lochmaea caprea <Unverified Name>[7]
Lomaspilis marginata (Clouded Border Moth)[8]
Lomographa temerata (Clouded Silver)[8]
Lophiotrema rubi[9]
Luperus longicornis <Unverified Name>[7]
Lycia hirtaria (Brindled Beauty Moth)[8]
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)[7]
Lygocoris populi <Unverified Name>[7]
Lymantria monacha (Black Arches, Nun Moth)[7]
Macropsis fuscinervis[7]
Macrothylacia rubi (Fox Moth)[8]
Melanchra pisi (Broom Moth)[8]
Meottomyces dissimulans[9]
Meroptera abditiva[8]
Messa glaucopis <Unverified Name>[7]
Nematus fahraei <Unverified Name>[7]
Nematus fuscomaculatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Nematus melanaspis <Unverified Name>[7]
Nematus nigricornis <Unverified Name>[7]
Nematus pavidus <Unverified Name>[7]
Neomecomma bilineatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Notodonta torva[8]
Notodonta tritophus <Unverified Name>[7]
Notodonta ziczac <Unverified Name>[7]
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)[7]
Nymphalis polychloros (Large Tortoiseshell Butterfly)[8]
Obrium cantharinum[9]
Operophtera brumata (winter moth)[8]
Orthosia gothica (Hebrew Character)[8]
Orthosia munda (Twin-spotted Quaker)[8]
Orthosia populeti (Lead-coloured Drab)[8]
Oxyporus corticola[9]
Pachypappa tremulae[7]
Pamphilius betulae <Unverified Name>[7]
Pamphilius histrio <Unverified Name>[7]
Pamphilius latifrons <Unverified Name>[7]
Pamphilius sylvaticus <Unverified Name>[11]
Panus conchatus[9]
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)[9]
Paraleucoptera sinuella <Unverified Name>[7]
Paranthrene tabaniformis (Dusky Clearwing)[8]
Paraphytomyza tremulae <Unverified Name>[7]
Peniophora nuda[9]
Peniophora polygonia[9]
Peniophora violaceolivida[9]
Pezicula ocellata[9]
Phalera bucephala (Buff-tip)[8]
Phanerochaete velutina[9]
Pheosia tremula (Swallow Prominent)[8]
Phratora laticollis <Unverified Name>[7]
Phratora vulgatissima <Unverified Name>[7]
Phyllobius maculicornis[7]
Phyllobius pyri (Common Leaf Weevil)[7]
Phyllobius vespertinus[7]
Phyllobius viridiaeris <Unverified Name>[7]
Phyllocnistis labyrinthella[8]
Phyllocoptes populi <Unverified Name>[7]
Phyllodecta laticollis <Unverified Name>[7]
Phyllodecta vitellinae <Unverified Name>[7]
Phyllodecta vulgatissima <Unverified Name>[7]
Phyllodesma ilicifolia (Small lappet moth)[8]
Phyllonorycter sagitella[8]
Phyllonorycter salicicolella[8]
Physatocheila dumetorum[7]
Phytobia cambii[7]
Phytodecta decemnotata <Unverified Name>[7]
Phytodecta viminalis <Unverified Name>[7]
Poecilocampa populi (December Moth)[8]
Polia nebulosa (Grey Arches)[8]
Polydrusus cervinus[7]
Polydrusus flavipes[7]
Polydrusus pterygomalis[7]
Psallus confusus[7]
Psallus perrisi[7]
Psallus variabilis[7]
Psallus wagneri[7]
Pseudochermes fraxini (felted ash coccus)[13]
Pseudoips fagana[7]
Pseudosciaphila branderiana[8]
Psyche casta[8]
Pterapherapteryx sexalata (Small Seraphim)[8]
Pterocomma tremulae[7]
Pterostoma palpina[8]
Ptilodon capucina (Coxcomb Prominent)[8]
Ptycholoma lecheana[7]
Pulvinaria tremulae[13]
Pulvinaria vitis (cottony vine scale)[13]
Pygaera timon[8]
Rabdophaga giraudiana[7]
Rabdophaga saliciperda[7]
Radulodon aneirinus[9]
Ramphus pulicarius[7]
Rheumaptera undulata[8]
Rhogogaster dryas <Unverified Name>[7]
Rhynchaenus salicis[7]
Rhynchites longiceps[7]
Rhynchites tomentosus[7]
Rutidosoma globulus[7]
Saperda carcharias[7]
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)[8]
Schizophyllum amplum[9]
Sciota hostilis[8]
Sclerencoelia fascicularis[9]
Scoliopteryx libatrix (herald moth)[8]
Semioscopis inornata[8]
Sesia apiformis (Hornet Moth)[8]
Smerinthus ocellata[8]
Stauropus fagi (Lobster Moth)[7]
Sthenarus rotermundi[7]
Stigmella assimilella[11]
Synanthedon martjanovi[8]
Synanthedon vespiformis (Yellow-legged Clearwing)[8]
Taphrorychus bicolor[7]
Tethea ocularis (Figure of Eighty)[8]
Tethea or (Poplar Lutestring)[8]
Trametes pubescens[9]
Trichiura crataegi (Pale Eggar)[8]
Trichopteryx carpinata (Early Tooth-striped)[8]
Tritophia tritophus[7]
Trypophloeus asperatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Trypophloeus granulatus[7]
Valsa nivea[9]
Valsa sordida[9]
Venturia macularis[9]
Venturia populina[11]
Xanthia icteritia (Sallow)[8]
Xanthoporia radiata (Alder Bracket)[9]
Xylodon radula (Toothed Crust)[9]
Xylota tarda[9]
Zeugophora flavicollis <Unverified Name>[7]
Zeugophora subspinosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Zeugophora turneri <Unverified Name>[7]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Amanita vaginata (Grisette)[11]
Clitopilus prunulus (The Miller)[11]
Cortinarius hinnuleus (Earthy Webcap)[11]
Inocybe lacera (Torn Fibrecap)[11]
Krombholziella murinacea (Brown Birch Bolete)[11]
Lactarius lacunarum[11]
Lactarius volemus[11]
Leccinum versipelle (Orange Birch Bolete)[11]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[11]
Porphyrellus sordidus (Cep)[11]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Amanita vaginata (Grisette)[11]
Clitopilus prunulus (The Miller)[11]
Cortinarius decipiens[11]
Cortinarius hinnuleus (Earthy Webcap)[11]
Cortinarius trivialis (Girdled Webcap)[9]
Inocybe lacera (Torn Fibrecap)[11]
Lactarius lacunarum[11]
Lactarius volemus[11]
Leccinum albostipitatum[9]
Leccinum aurantiacum[9]
Leccinum duriusculum (Slate Bolete)[9]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[11]
Porphyrellus sordidus (Cep)[11]
Parasitized by 
Harmandiola tremulae[11]
Melampsora populnea[9]
Phellinus populicola[9]
Phellinus tremulae (Aspen Bracket)[9]
Stigmella assimilella[11]
Venturia populina[11]


Bassegi Zapovednik; North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
6Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Food eaten by the free-living European bison in Białowieża Forest, Zofia GĘBCZYŃSKA, Marek GĘBCZYŃSKI and Ewa MARTYNOWICZ, Acta Theriologica 36 (3-4), 307-313, 1991.
11Ecology of Commanster
12Capra sibirica, Alexander K. Fedosenko and David A. Blank, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 675, pp. 1–13 (2001)
13Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access