Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Caryophyllales > Polygonaceae > Persicaria > Persicaria hydropiper
 

Persicaria hydropiper (marshpepper knotweed; mild water-pepper; annual smartweed)

Wikipedia Abstract

Water-pepper or water pepper (Persicaria hydropiper, syn. Polygonum hydropiper) is a plant of the family Polygonaceae. It grows in damp places and shallow water. It is a widespread plant, found in Australia, New Zealand, temperate Asia, Europe, and North America. It has some use as a spice because of its pungent flavor.
View Wikipedia Record: Persicaria hydropiper

Infraspecies

Attributes

Height [3]  30 inches (0.75 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-High
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [2]  USDA Zone: 12 Low Temperature: 50 F° (10 C°) → 55 F° (12.8 C°)
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [4]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [4]  Intermediate
Soil Moisture [4]  Damp
Water Use [2]  High
Flower Color [2]  Red
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Black
Bloom Period [2]  Late Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  None
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  None
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Crown
Growth Period [2]  Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  Although no specific mention has been made for this species, there have been reports that some members of this genus can cause photosensitivity in susceptible people. Many species also contain oxalic acid (the distinctive lemony flavour of sorrel) - whilst not toxic this substance can bind up other minerals making them unavailable to the body and leading to mineral deficiency. Having said that, a number of common foods such as sorrel and rhubarb contain oxalic acid and the leaves of most members of this genus are nutritious and beneficial to eat in moderate quantities. Cooking the leaves will reduce their content of oxalic acid. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition;
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [3]  Annual
Pollinators [3]  Bats
Propagation [2]  Seed
Regrowth Rate [2]  Slow
Root Depth [2]  6 inches (15 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  275000 / lb (606271 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Semi-Erect
Structure [5]  Herb
Usage [3]  A yellow-gold dye is obtained from the stalks;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Persicaria hydropiper

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Upper Danube Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Avon Gorge Woodlands 376 England, United Kingdom
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Boschi del Ticino 50788 Italy  
Braunton Burrows 3328 England, United Kingdom
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve V 619089 Jilin, China  
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen 10186 Wales, United Kingdom
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Dolina Górnego Nurca 9872 Poland  
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Fenland 1529 England, United Kingdom
Fontanazzo 133 Italy  
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
John Day Fossil Beds National Monument III 8594 Oregon, United States
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kedrovaya Pad Zapovednik Ia 44224 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
La Rocchetta 220 Italy  
Laghetto del Frassino 193 Italy  
Lago d'Idro 35 Italy  
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lavinia Nature Reserve State Reserve II 17390 Tasmania, Australia    
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru 3940 Wales, United Kingdom  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
Näsudden 127 Sweden  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Pembrokeshire Woodlands/ Coedydd Gogledd Sir Benfro 780 Wales, United Kingdom  
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Regionale Oglio Sud 9941 Italy  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Pipestone National Monument V 326 Minnesota, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Struuga 4238 Estonia    
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Torbiere d'Iseo 895 Italy  
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Ussuriysky Zapovednik Ia 99910 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Valle dell'Adige 35 Italy  
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  

Ecosystems

Predators

Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)[6]
Agrochola helvola (Flounced Chestnut)[7]
Haematopis grataria (Chickweed Geometer)[7]
Mylothris bernice[6]
Mylothris rubricosta (Eastern Swamp Dotted Border)[6]
Pelenomus quadrituberculatus[8]
Pelenomus waltoni <Unverified Name>[8]
Rhinoncus bruchoides[8]
Rhodometra sacraria (Vestal)[6]
Simyra henrici[7]
Xanthotype sospeta[7]

Providers

Pollinated by 
Agrilus difficilis[6]
Agrilus egenus[6]
Andrena pruni[6]
Cheilosia capillata[6]
Epigrimyia polita[6]
Exorista mella[9]
Halictus lerouxii[9]
Isodontia apicalis[6]
Leptometopa latipes[6]
Mordellistena aspersa[6]
Morellia micans[6]
Peponapis pruinosa[6]
Perilampus platigaster[6]
Polistes fuscatus (Paper wasp)[9]
Reichertella pulicaria[6]
Rivellia pallida[6]
Triepeolus donatus[6]
Tryphon americanus[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Pegomya bicolor[10]
Ramularia rubella[6]
Septoria polygonorum[10]

Distribution

Bassegi Zapovednik; North America; Oceania;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000) 2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999) 5Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935 6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 9Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA. 10Ecology of Commanster
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access