Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Bovidae > Bos taurus > Bos taurus indicus

Bos taurus indicus (aurochs; domesticated cattle; domestic cattle (feral))

Synonyms: Bos indicus; Bos namadicus

Wikipedia Abstract

A zebu (/ˈziːˌbjuː/, /ˈziːbuː/ or /ˈzeɪbuː/; Bos primigenius indicus or Bos indicus or Bos taurus indicus), sometimes known as indicine cattle or humped cattle, is a species or sub-species of domestic cattle originating in South Asia. Zebu are characterised by a fatty hump on their shoulders, a large dewlap and sometimes drooping ears. They are well adapted to withstanding high temperatures, and are farmed throughout the tropical countries, both as pure zebu and as hybrids with taurine cattle, the other main type of domestic cattle. Zebu are used as draught oxen, as dairy cattle and as beef cattle, as well as for byproducts such as hides and dung for fuel and manure. In 1999, researchers at Texas A&M University successfully cloned a zebu.
View Wikipedia Record: Bos taurus indicus

Invasive Species

Feral cattle (Bos taurus) are escaped or released domestic animals. Unless well contained by adequate fences, they form feral herds and wander into native vegetation wherever suitable food is available. They can severely modify native vegetation by browsing, crushing and trampling. In native forests they invariably lay bare the forest floor and eliminate nearly all young trees, shrubs and ferns until only a few unpalatable or browse-resistant species remain. In subalpine environments feral cattle open up clearings by breaking down and browsing low-canopied vegetation.
View ISSG Record: Bos taurus indicus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Not determined do to incomplete vulnerability data.
ED Score: 6.82


Adult Weight [1]  1,653.48 lbs (750.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  1 year 6 months
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Gestation [1]  9 months 7 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  20 years

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Azraq Wetland Reserve IV   Jordan
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 177278 Hawaii, United States
Hawaiian Islands Biosphere Reserve 245981 Hawaii, United States  
Kosciuszko National Park II 1705480 New South Wales, Australia
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Prince Regent River Nature Reserve Ia 1428602 Western Australia, Australia  
Purnululu National Park II 604999 Western Australia, Australia
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Shoalwater and Corio Bays Area Ramsar Site   Queensland, Australia
South Taupo Wetland   North Island, New Zealand      
Tierra Del Fuego National Park II 172861 Argentina

Emblem of

Moldova, Republic Of


Gypaetus barbatus (Bearded Vulture)[3]


Parasitized by 
Agriostomum vryburgi <Unverified Name>[4]
Ashworthius pattoni <Unverified Name>[4]
Avitellina centripunctata[4]
Babesia bigemina <Unverified Name>[5]
Babesia bovis <Unverified Name>[5]
Balanorchis anastrophus <Unverified Name>[4]
Bovicola bovis[5]
Bunostomoides phlebotomum <Unverified Name>[5]
Bunostomum phlebotomum[4]
Bunostomum trigonocephalum[4]
Buxifrons buxifrons <Unverified Name>[4]
Calicophoron bothriophoron <Unverified Name>[4]
Calicophoron clavula <Unverified Name>[4]
Calicophoron microbothrioides <Unverified Name>[4]
Calicophoron microbothrium <Unverified Name>[4]
Calicophoron papillosum <Unverified Name>[4]
Calicophoron raja <Unverified Name>[4]
Calicophoron sukari <Unverified Name>[4]
Capillaria bilobata <Unverified Name>[4]
Carmyerius endopapillatus <Unverified Name>[4]
Carmyerius exoporus <Unverified Name>[4]
Carmyerius graberi <Unverified Name>[4]
Carmyerius gregarius <Unverified Name>[4]
Carmyerius mancupatus <Unverified Name>[4]
Carmyerius parvipapillatus <Unverified Name>[4]
Carmyerius spatiosus <Unverified Name>[4]
Carmyerius synethes <Unverified Name>[4]
Chabertia ovina <Unverified Name>[5]
Coenurus cerebralis[4]
Cooperia mcmasteri <Unverified Name>[5]
Cooperia oncophora <Unverified Name>[4]
Cooperia pectinata[4]
Cooperia punctata[4]
Cooperia spatulata <Unverified Name>[5]
Cooperia zurnabada <Unverified Name>[4]
Cotylophoron cotylophorum <Unverified Name>[4]
Cotylophoron fuelleborni <Unverified Name>[4]
Cotylophoron jacksoni <Unverified Name>[4]
Cryptosporidium andersoni[5]
Cryptosporidium bovis[5]
Cryptosporidium muris[5]
Cryptosporidium parvum[5]
Cysticercus bovis <Unverified Name>[4]
Dicrocoelium hospes <Unverified Name>[4]
Dictyocaulus viviparus[4]
Dorcadia dorcadia[6]
Echidnophaga gallinacea (sticktight flea)[5]
Echinococcus granulosus[4]
Echinococcus ortleppi <Unverified Name>[4]
Eimeria alabamensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Eimeria auburnensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Eimeria bovis <Unverified Name>[5]
Eimeria bukidnonensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Eimeria canadensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Eimeria cylindrica <Unverified Name>[5]
Eimeria ellipsoidalis <Unverified Name>[5]
Eimeria pellita <Unverified Name>[5]
Eimeria subspherica <Unverified Name>[5]
Eimeria wyomingensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Eimeria zuernii <Unverified Name>[5]
Eurytrema coelomaticum <Unverified Name>[4]
Explanatum anisocotyle <Unverified Name>[4]
Explanatum bathycotyle <Unverified Name>[4]
Explanatum explanatum <Unverified Name>[4]
Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke)[4]
Filarinema durettae <Unverified Name>[5]
Filarinema flagrifer <Unverified Name>[5]
Fischoederius cobboldi <Unverified Name>[4]
Fischoederius elongatus <Unverified Name>[4]
Fischoederius japonicus <Unverified Name>[4]
Fischoederius ovatus <Unverified Name>[4]
Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus <Unverified Name>[4]
Gastrothylax cobboldi <Unverified Name>[4]
Gastrothylax compressus <Unverified Name>[4]
Gastrothylax crumenifer <Unverified Name>[4]
Gastrothylax magnadiscus <Unverified Name>[4]
Giardia duodenalis <Unverified Name>[5]
Gigantocotyle formosana <Unverified Name>[4]
Gigantocotyle symmeri <Unverified Name>[4]
Gongylonema pulchrum[5]
Gongylonema verrucosum <Unverified Name>[5]
Haematopinus eurysternus (shortnosed cattle louse)[5]
Haematopinus quadripertusus (Cattle tail louse)[5]
Haematopinus tuberculatus[5]
Haemonchus contortus (red stomach worm)[4]
Haemonchus placei <Unverified Name>[4]
Haemonchus similis <Unverified Name>[4]
Hippobosca equina (Forest fly)[5]
Homalogaster paloniae <Unverified Name>[4]
Isotricha prostoma <Unverified Name>[5]
Linguatula serrata (tongueworm)[5]
Linognathus vituli (longnosed cattle louse)[5]
Liorchis hiberniae <Unverified Name>[4]
Liorchis scotiae <Unverified Name>[4]
Mecistocirrus digitatus <Unverified Name>[4]
Moniezia alba <Unverified Name>[4]
Moniezia benedeni <Unverified Name>[4]
Moniezia denticulata <Unverified Name>[4]
Nematodirus helvetianus[4]
Neoascaris vitulorum[4]
Neospora caninum <Unverified Name>[5]
Odilia polyrhabdote <Unverified Name>[5]
Oesophagostomum radiatum[4]
Oesophagostomum venulosum[4]
Olveria bosi <Unverified Name>[4]
Olveria indica <Unverified Name>[4]
Onchocerca gibsoni <Unverified Name>[4]
Onchocerca gutterosa <Unverified Name>[5]
Onchocerca lienalis <Unverified Name>[4]
Onchocerca ochengi <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium bovini <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium brevicaeca <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium dawesi <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium dicranocoelium <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium dinniki <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium indonesiense <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium narayanai <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium orthocoelium <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium parastreptocoelium <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium parvipapillatum <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium scoliocoelium <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium sinuocoelium <Unverified Name>[4]
Orthocoelium streptocoelium <Unverified Name>[4]
Ostertagia circumcincta[4]
Ostertagia crimensis <Unverified Name>[4]
Ostertagia kolchida[4]
Ostertagia leptospicularis[4]
Ostertagia lyrata[4]
Ostertagia occidentalis <Unverified Name>[5]
Ostertagia ostertagi[4]
Paramphistomum epiclitum <Unverified Name>[4]
Paramphistomum gotoi <Unverified Name>[4]
Paramphistomum gracile <Unverified Name>[4]
Paramphistomum hiberniae <Unverified Name>[4]
Paramphistomum ichikawai <Unverified Name>[4]
Paramphistomum leydeni <Unverified Name>[4]
Paramphistomum liorchis <Unverified Name>[4]
Pseudodiscus collinsi <Unverified Name>[4]
Sarcocystis blanchardi <Unverified Name>[5]
Sarcocystis cruzi <Unverified Name>[5]
Sarcocystis hirsuta <Unverified Name>[5]
Sarcocystis hominis <Unverified Name>[5]
Schistosoma bovis <Unverified Name>[4]
Schistosoma indicum <Unverified Name>[4]
Schistosoma japonicum <Unverified Name>[4]
Schistosoma mattheei <Unverified Name>[4]
Schistosoma spindale <Unverified Name>[4]
Setaria digitata <Unverified Name>[4]
Setaria labiatopapillosa <Unverified Name>[4]
Setaria marshalli <Unverified Name>[4]
Solenopotes capillatus (little blue cattle louse)[5]
Stephanopharynx compactus <Unverified Name>[4]
Stephanurus dentatus[5]
Strongyloides papillosus[4]
Taenia saginata[4]
Taeniarhynchus saginatus <Unverified Name>[4]
Theileria buffeli <Unverified Name>[5]
Theileria mutans <Unverified Name>[5]
Theileria orientalis <Unverified Name>[5]
Theileria sergenti <Unverified Name>[5]
Thelazia rhodesi <Unverified Name>[4]
Thysaniezia giardi <Unverified Name>[4]
Thysaniezia ovilla <Unverified Name>[4]
Toxocara vitulorum <Unverified Name>[4]
Toxoplasma gondii <Unverified Name>[5]
Trichocephalus erschovi <Unverified Name>[4]
Trichocephalus globulosa <Unverified Name>[4]
Trichocephalus indicus <Unverified Name>[4]
Trichostrongylus axei[4]
Trichostrongylus colubriformis[5]
Trichostrongylus longispicularis[5]
Trichostrongylus vitrinus[5]
Trichuris globulosa[4]
Trichuris ovis[5]
Trichuris parvispiculum <Unverified Name>[5]
Tritrichomonas foetus <Unverified Name>[5]
Trypanosoma theileri <Unverified Name>[5]
Tunga penetrans (Chigoe)[6]
Velasquezotrema brevisaccus <Unverified Name>[4]
Velasquezotrema tripurensis <Unverified Name>[4]
Vermipsylla alakurt[6]
Vermipsylla parallela[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africa Alive!taurus ankole
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
African Safaritaurus watusi
Albuquerque Biological Parktaurus ankole
 taurus milking_shorthorn
Amarillo Zoo
America's Teaching Zoo
Apenheul Primate Parkindicus
Artis Zootaurus watusi
Assiniboine Park Zooindicus dwarf
Attica Zoological Park S.A.taurus
Badoca Safari Park
Beale Parkindicus
Bellewaerde Parktaurus watusi
Bergen County Zoological Parktaurus american_lineback
 taurus milking_devon
Berkshire College of Agriculturetaurus dexter
Binder Park Zooindicus
 taurus watusi
Blaavand Zootaurus highland
Blackpool Zooindicus
Blair Drummond Safari Parktaurus ankole
Boras Djurpark Zoo
Bowmanville Zoological Park
 taurus ankole
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
Bronx Children's Zooindicus
Brookgreen Gardenstaurus devon
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardenindicus dwarf
 taurus hungarian_grey
 taurus hungarian_pied
Buffalo Zoological Gardensindicus
Bursa Zoo (Bursa Hayvanat Bahcesi)
Buttonwood Park Zootaurus american_milking_devon
 taurus randall_blue_lineback
Caldwell Zootaurus
Camperdown Wildlife Centretaurus highland
Cape May County Park Zootaurus watusi
Central Florida Zoological Parkindicus
Central Park Zootaurus domestic
Chicago Zoological Parktaurus holstein
Children's Zoo at Celebration Squareindicus
 taurus highland
 taurus holstein
 taurus jersey
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Gardentaurus dexter
 taurus domestic
City of Belfast Zootaurus irish_moiled
Connecticut's Beardsley Zootaurus dexter
Cosley Zootaurus american_angus
 taurus guernsey
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardensindicus
 taurus dexter
Dakota Zoo
David Traylor Zoo of Emporiataurus longhorn
Detroit Zoological Societytaurus belted_galloway
 taurus highland
Dickerson Park Zootaurus highland
Dierenpark Amersfoorttaurus watusi
Dierenrijk Europaprimigenius
 taurus highland
Disney's Animal Kingdomtaurus ankole
 taurus dexter
Drusillas Zoo Parktaurus jersey
DSI Givskud Zooindicus
 taurus watusi
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zootaurus
Erie Zoological Gardensindicus
Espace Zoologique la Boissiere du Doretaurus watusi
Flamingo Land LTDtaurus dexter
Forest Park Zoological Societytaurus highland
Fort Wayne Children's Zootaurus dexter
Fort Worth Zoological Parktaurus texas_longhorn
Fossil Rim Wildlife Center
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zooprimigenius
 taurus hereford
Gladys Porter Zooindicus
Great Plains Zootaurus belted_galloway
 taurus dexter
Greater Vancouver Zooindicus
 taurus ankole
Guadalajara Zoo
 taurus watusi
Happy Hollow Zooindicus
Honolulu Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.indicus
 taurus ankole
 taurus pineywoods
Hutchinson Zooindicus
IAE - African Safari Wildlife Park
Jardin Zoologique de la Ville de Lyontaurus watusi
Johannesburg Zoological Gardenstaurus nguni
Jyllands Park Zooindicus
 taurus watusi
Kittenberger Zootaurus watusi
Knowsley Safari Parktaurus ankole
Knuthenborg Safariparkindicus dwarf
 taurus dexter
 taurus watusi
Kolmardens Djurpark ABtaurus swedish_polled
 taurus watusi
Kristiansand Dyrepark ASA
Kyiv Zoological Parktaurus watusi
La Vallée des Singesindicus
Le Pal, Parc Animaliertaurus watusi
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
 taurus dexter
Little Rock Zoological Gardensindicus
Longleat Safari Parktaurus ankole
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoo
Lubee Bat Conservancy
Magnetic Hill Zoo
Maryland Zoo in Baltimoretaurus dexter
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquarium
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzezataurus
 taurus hungarian_steppe
Mill Mountain Zooindicus
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardenstaurus american_brown_swiss
 taurus ayrshire
 taurus belted_galloway
 taurus highland
 taurus holstein
 taurus milking_shorthorn
 taurus red_and_white_holstein
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Miskolc Zoo/Állatkert és Kultúrparkindicus
 taurus hungarian_grey
 taurus hungarian_pied
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
 taurus khillari
 taurus watusi
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunnprimigenius re-creation
 taurus lagune
 taurus murnau_werdenfels
Nagoya Higashiyama Zootaurus kuchinoshima
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.taurus
Nashville Zoo at Grassmeretaurus american_angus
 taurus devon
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africataurus nguni
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
Neunkircher Zoologischer Garten GmbHtaurus highland
NEW Zooindicus
Niabi Zooindicus
Noah's Ark Zoo Farmtaurus ankole
 taurus highland
 taurus jersey
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFTindicus
 taurus highland
 taurus hungarian_grey
 taurus hungarian_pied
 taurus watusi
Odsherreds Zoo Dyrepark A/Sindicus dwarf
Ogrod Zoologiczny im. Stefana Mileraindicus
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniuindicus dwarf
Olmense Zootaurus watusi
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zooindicus
Opel-Zoo von Opel HessischeZoostiftungtaurus
Orana Wildlife Park
Oregon Zootaurus dexter
Out of Africa Wildlife Park
Pana'ewa Rainforest Zoo & Gardens
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)taurus watusi
Parc Paysager Et Animalier Du Reynoutaurus watusi
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.
 taurus ankole
Parc Zoologic de Barcelonataurus friesland
Parc Zoologique d'Amiensindicus
Parc Zoologique de la Barbentaurus watusi
Parco Natura Vivataurus
 taurus watusi
Parco Zoo di Falconarataurus watusi
Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarceno
Parque Zoologico Benito Juarez
Peoria Zoo in Glen Oak Parkindicus
Phoenix Zoo
 taurus ankole
Planete Sauvagetaurus watusi
Pocatello Zoo
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutovtaurus
 taurus highland
 taurus hungarian_grey
Potawatomi Zootaurus ankole
Prospect Park Zootaurus domestic
Pueblo Zootaurus dexter
 taurus highland
 taurus texas_longhorn
Queens Zootaurus belted_galloway
 taurus highland
Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safari
 taurus watusi
Riga Zoo
 taurus domestic
 taurus highland
 taurus holstein
 taurus hungarian_steppe
Riverbanks Zoo and Garden
Rodbaston Collegeindicus dwarf
Roger Williams Park Zootaurus dexter_kerry
Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventure
Rostock Zoologischer Gartentaurus
Safari de Peaugrestaurus watusi
Safari Westtaurus watusi
Safaripark Beekse Bergentaurus highland
 taurus watusi
Saint Louis Zoological Parkindicus
Saitama Children's Zooindicus
 taurus holstein
Santa Ana Zootaurus dexter
Scovill Zooindicus dwarf
 taurus aberdeen_angus
Sedgwick County Zooindicus
 taurus brown_swiss
 taurus highland
 taurus milking_devon
 taurus pineywoods
 taurus randall_blue_lineback
 taurus texas_longhorn
 taurus watusi
 taurus white_park
Silesian Zoological Gardenindicus
Singapore Zoological Gardenstaurus ankole
Six Flags Discovery Kingdomindicus
Skaerup Mini Zooindicus
Skansen Foundation, Zool. Dept.
Smithsonian National Zoological Parktaurus hereford
 taurus holstein
Staten Island Zoo
STB Kanta - Friguia Zoo
Sunset Zooindicus
Taipei Zoo
Terra Natura S.A.
The Living Desert Zoo and Gardenstaurus ankole
The Philadelphia Zootaurus jersey
Thoiry Zoological Parktaurus highland
 taurus watusi
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurttaurus dexter
 taurus hinterwald
Tiergarten Bernburgtaurus hungarian_grey
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnbergindicus dwarf
 taurus highland
Tiergarten Heidelbergtaurus
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHindicus azerbaijan
 indicus dwarf
 taurus highland
 taurus hungarian_steppe
 taurus swedish_mountain
 taurus watusi
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbH
Tierwelt Herbersteintaurus
Tilgate Nature Centretaurus white_park
Trotter's World of Animalsindicus
 taurus ankole
 taurus highland
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museumtaurus highland
Turtle Back Zoo
 taurus belted_galloway
 taurus highland
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Center
Virginia Safari Park & Preserv Ctr,Inctaurus
 taurus highland
 taurus watusi
Virginia Zoological Parktaurus dexter
Werribee Open Range Zoo
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltdtaurus ankole
Whipsnade Wild Animal Parktaurus red_poll
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendaeltaurus watusi
Wildlife Safari Inctaurus watusi
Woburn Safari Parktaurus ankole
Woodland Park Zoological Gardenstaurus
Wroclaw Zoo, LLCtaurus highland
 taurus watusi
Xantus János Állatkert Kht.taurus highland
Yorkshire Wildlife Parktaurus ankole
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagrebtaurus highland
Zivalski vrt Ljubljanaindicus
Zoo de la Bourbansais
Zoo de La Flecheindicus
 taurus watusi
Zoo de Pont-Scorfftaurus
Zoo Dortmundtaurus
Zoo Dresden GmbHtaurus watusi
Zoo Duisburg AGindicus
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.taurus domestic
 taurus dwarf_zebu
 taurus watusi
Zoo Hannover GmbHtaurus old_german_black_pied
Zoo Landau in der Pfalztaurus watusi
Zoo Melaka
Zoo Negara Malaysia
 taurus ankole
Zoo New England, Stone Zooindicus
Zoo of Acadiana
 taurus texas_longhorn
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Safari Swierkocintaurus hungarian_steppe
 taurus watusi
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaiataurus
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
 taurus texas_longhorn
Zoological Society of Ireland-Dublintaurus british_friesian
 taurus simmental
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislavataurus watusi
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosice
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH
 taurus lagune
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbHindicus
Zoologischer Garten Leipzigtaurus
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburgindicus dwarf
Zoologischer Garten Saarbrueckentaurus highland
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertal


Africa; Australia; Caribbean; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); Middle America; North America; Oceania; South America; Southern Asia;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
3Assessing the diet of nestling Bearded Vultures: a comparison between direct observation methods, Antoni Margalida, Joan Bertran, and Jennifer Boudet, J. Field Ornithol. 76(1):40–45, 2005
4Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
5Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
6International Flea Database
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access