Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Cervidae > Rangifer > Rangifer tarandus
 

Rangifer tarandus (caribou; reindeer)

Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a deer from the Arctic and Subarctic, including both resident and migratory populations. While overall widespread and numerous, some of its subspecies are rare and one (or two, depending on taxonomy) has already gone extinct. Reindeer vary considerably in color and size. Both sexes grow antlers, though they are typically larger in males. There are a few populations where females lack antlers completely.
View Wikipedia Record: Rangifer tarandus

Infraspecies

Rangifer tarandus caribou (woodland caribou)
Rangifer tarandus granti (Synonym of Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus, Tundra reindeer)
Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus (Tundra reindeer)
Rangifer tarandus pearyi (Peary caribou)
Rangifer tarandus tarandus (caribou)

Invasive Species

Introduced intentionally to the subantarctic islands of Kerguelen and South Georgia, populations of Rangifer tarandus (reindeer) have had a significant impact on native vegetation of the islands due to grazing and trampling.
View ISSG Record: Rangifer tarandus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
27
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 11.66
EDGE Score: 2.54

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  223.22 lbs (101.25 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  14.33 lbs (6.50 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  1 year 9 months
Male Maturity [1]  1 year 10 months
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Gestation [1]  7 months 18 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  22 years
Migration [2]  Intracontinental
Speed [3]  32.01 MPH (14.31 m/s)
Weaning [1]  4 months

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Baffin coastal tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Bering tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Davis Highlands tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
East Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Kalaallit Nunaat high arctic tundra Greenland Nearctic Tundra
Kalaallit Nunaat low arctic tundra Greenland Nearctic Tundra
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khangai Mountains conifer forests Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Newfoundland Highland forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeast Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Siberian forest steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ural montane forests and tundra Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
West Siberian taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Western Siberian hemiboreal forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Baikalo-Lensky Zapovednik Ia 1630896 Irkutsk, Russia
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Bonanza Creek LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Alaska, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Great Arctic State Nature Preserve 10302372 Taimyr, Russia
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kalevala National Park 183706 Karelia, Russia      
Katmai National Park and Preserve Ib 421782 Alaska, United States
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kostomukshsky Zapovednik Ia 117269 Karelia, Russia
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kuznetsk Alatau State Nature Reserve 1020298 Kemerovo, Russia
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Mount Revelstoke National Park Ia 18 British Columbia, Canada
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Ostrov Vrangelya (Wrangel Island) Zapovednik Nature Monument III 180 Russia    
Paanajärvi National Park 258158 Karelia, Russia
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Reserve de la Biosphere de Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve 1383790 Canada  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Tunkinsky National Park 2924892 Buryatia, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Ukkusiksalik National Park II   Nunavut, Canada
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Walker Bay Field Station   Nunavut, Canada  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Emblem of

Newfoundland & Labrador

Prey / Diet

Arctagrostis latifolia (wideleaf polargrass)[4]
Betula nana (dwarf birch)[4]
Carex bonanzensis (Yukon sedge)[4]
Carex garberi (elk sedge)[5]
Cladonia rangiferina (greygreen reindeer lichen)[4]
Dryas octopetala (white dryas)[4]
Eriophorum scheuchzeri (white cottongrass)[4]
Nephroma arcticum (arctic kidney lichen)[4]
Salix alaxensis (feltleaf willow)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alces alces (moose)4
Branta hutchinsii (Cackling Goose)3
Branta ruficollis (Red-breasted Goose)1
Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur)3
Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll)3
Castor canadensis (american beaver)1
Clethrionomys rutilus (northern red-backed vole)3
Erethizon dorsatum (common porcupine)2
Glaucomys sabrinus (northern flying squirrel)2
Lagopus lagopus (Willow Ptarmigan)2
Lagopus leucura (White-tailed Ptarmigan)2
Lemmus sibiricus (brown lemming)8
Lepus americanus (Snowshoe Hare)1
Lepus othus (Alaskan Hare)1
Ovibos moschatus (muskox)6
Ovis dalli (Dall's sheep)5
Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak)1
Spermophilus parryii (Arctic ground squirrel)3

Predators

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[6]
Canis lupus (Wolf)[4]
Cuon alpinus (Dhole)[7]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[4]
Vulpes lagopus (Arctic Fox)[8]
Cephenemyia trompe[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Avitellina arctica <Unverified Name>[9]
Brucella melitensis (Brucella / Brucellosis)[10]
Capillaria bovis[9]
Cephenemyia trompe (Bot fly)[4]
Cysticercus tarandi <Unverified Name>[9]
Cysticercus tenuicollis <Unverified Name>[9]
Dermacentor albipictus (Elk tick)[10]
Dictyocaulus eckerti <Unverified Name>[9]
Dictyocaulus murmanensis <Unverified Name>[9]
Dictyocaulus viviparus[9]
Echinococcus granulosus[9]
Elaphostrongylus cervi[9]
Elaphostrongylus rangiferi <Unverified Name>[9]
Eranuides mathevossianae <Unverified Name>[9]
Fascioloides magna (giant liver fluke)[9]
Fischoederius elongatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Fischoederius skrjabini <Unverified Name>[9]
Gastrothylax crumenifer <Unverified Name>[9]
Grosspiculagia occidentalis <Unverified Name>[9]
Hypoderma tarandi[10]
Liorchis scotiae <Unverified Name>[9]
Marshallagia marshalli <Unverified Name>[9]
Marshallagia occidentalis <Unverified Name>[9]
Moniezia benedeni <Unverified Name>[9]
Moniezia expansa (sheep tapeworm)[9]
Moniezia taimyrica <Unverified Name>[9]
Nematodirella alcidis <Unverified Name>[9]
Nematodirella longispiculata <Unverified Name>[9]
Nematodirella longissimespiculata <Unverified Name>[9]
Nematodirus filicollis[9]
Nematodirus helvetianus[9]
Nematodirus odocoilei <Unverified Name>[9]
Nematodirus skrjabini <Unverified Name>[9]
Nematodirus tarandi <Unverified Name>[9]
Oesophagostomum venulosum[9]
Onchocerca tarsicola <Unverified Name>[9]
Ostertagia arctica <Unverified Name>[9]
Ostertagia circumcincta[9]
Ostertagia gruehneri <Unverified Name>[9]
Ostertagia kolchida[9]
Ostertagia leptospicularis[9]
Ostertagia mossi <Unverified Name>[9]
Ostertagia oreamni <Unverified Name>[9]
Ostertagia ostertagi[9]
Ostertagia trifurcata[9]
Parabronema skrjabini[9]
Paramphistomum cervi[9]
Paramphistomum leydeni <Unverified Name>[9]
Parelaphostrongylus andersoni <Unverified Name>[9]
Parelaphostrongylus tenuis <Unverified Name>[9]
Setaria cervi <Unverified Name>[9]
Setaria tundra <Unverified Name>[9]
Setaria yehi <Unverified Name>[9]
Skrjabinagia arctica <Unverified Name>[9]
Skrjabinema tarandi <Unverified Name>[9]
Spiculopteragia asymmetrica[9]
Spiculopteragia mathevossiani <Unverified Name>[9]
Spiculopteragia quadrispiculata <Unverified Name>[9]
Spiculopteragia spiculoptera[9]
Taenia hydatigena <Unverified Name>[9]
Taenia krabbei <Unverified Name>[9]
Taenia multiceps <Unverified Name>[9]
Taenia ovis <Unverified Name>[9]
Taenia parenchymatosa <Unverified Name>[9]
Taenia saginata[9]
Taeniarhynchus saginatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Teladorsagia boreoarcticus <Unverified Name>[9]
Teladorsagia circumcincta <Unverified Name>[9]
Teladorsagia davtiani <Unverified Name>[9]
Teladorsagia trifurcata <Unverified Name>[9]
Trichocephalus baskakovi <Unverified Name>[9]
Trichostrongylus axei[9]
Trichostrongylus vitrinus[9]
Trichuris ovis[9]
Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis <Unverified Name>[9]
Shelter for 
Cephenemyia trompe[4]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aalborg Zoo
Artis Zoo
Assiniboine Park Zoocaribou
 tarandus
Binghamton Zoo at Ross Park
Blaavand Zoo
Blackpool Zoo
 tarandus
Boras Djurpark Zoofennicus
Bowmanville Zoological Park
 tarandus
Bramble Park Zoo
Buffalo Zoological Gardens
Burger's Zoofennicus
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Parkcaribou
Chahinkapa Zoo
Chicago Zoological Park
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Colchester Zoo
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Copenhagen Zoo
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens
Cougar Mountain Zoological Parksibiricus
Dakota Zoo
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dierenrijk Europa
Domaine Zoologique de Pescheray
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
Dudley Zoological Gardens
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zoo
 tarandus
Exmoor Zoological Park
Folly Farm Leisure Ltd
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zoofennicus
Great Plains Zoo
Greater Vancouver Zoo
Guldborgsund Zoo & Botanical Garden
Helsinki Zoofennicus
Highland Wildlife Parkfennicus
Jyllands Park Zoo
Leningrad Zoo - St. Petersburgtarandus
Lietuvos Zoologijos Sodas
Lincoln Childrens Zoo (former Folsom)
Manor House Wildlife Park
Miller Park Zoo
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
 caribou
Minnesota Zoological Gardencaribou
Moscow Zoological Park
Municipal Independent Org. Roev Ruchei
Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo
Niedersächsische Landesforstencaribou
Noah's Ark Zoo Farm
Nordens Arkfennicus
Northwest Trek Wildlife Park
 caribou
 granti
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Odense Zoologiske Have
Ouwehand Zoo
Paradise Wildlife Park
Parc Animalier de Sainte Croix
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sad
Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium
Potter Park Zoological Gardens
Ranua Wildlife Parkfennicus
 tarandus
Riga Zoofennicus
Riverview Park & Zoo
Roosevelt Park Zoo
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
 tarandus
Rotterdam Zoofennicus
Salzburg Zoo Hellbrunn
San Diego Zoosibiricus
Scandinavian Wildlife Parktarandus
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Skansen Foundation, Zool. Dept.tarandus
Societa Zoologica Di Pistoia S.R.L
South Lakes Wild Animal Park
St. Paul's Como Zoo
Tama Zoological Park
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Tierpark Dählhölzlifennicus
Toronto Zootarandus
Twycross Zoo
Utica Zoo
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltd
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Wingham Wildlife Park
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Yukon Wildlife Preservecaribou
Zoo Ahtari (Ähtärin Eläinpuisto Oy)fennicus
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
Zoo De Servion
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo Duisburg AG
Zoo Hannover GmbH
 caribou
Zoo New England, Franklin Park Zoo
Zoo New England, Stone Zoo
Zoo of Antwerp
 tarandus
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Parc Overloon
Zoo Sauvage de St-Féliciencaribou
Zoological Garden Prague
 tarandus
Zoologicka Zahrada Mesta Brna
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
 tarandus
Zoologischer Garten Basel
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertal

Range Map

Link to Map
Azas Zapovednik; Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Grubb P., 22-Apr-2004, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection 5Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service 6Golden Eagles on the Swedish mountain tundra – diet and breeding success in relation to prey fluctuations, Jesper Nyström, Johan Ekenstedt, Anders Angerbjörn, Linda Thulin, Peter Hellström & Love Dalén, Ornis Fennica 83:145–152. 2006 7Cuon alpinus, James A. Cohen, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 100, pp. 1-3 (1978) 8Predator–prey relationships: arctic foxes and lemmings, Anders Angerbjorn, Magnus Tannerfeldt and Sam Erlinge, Journal of Animal Ecology, Volume 68, Issue 1, Pages 34-49 9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 10Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Invasive Status provided by Global Invasive Species Database Downloaded on 10 May 2011.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Patterson, B. D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M. F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B. E. Young. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy—Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International—CABS, World Wildlife Fund—US, and Environment Canada—WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011