Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Rodentia > Muridae > Microtus > Microtus pennsylvanicus
 

Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)

Synonyms: Microtus nesophilus
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus), sometimes called the field mouse or meadow mouse, is a North American vole found across Canada, Alaska and the northern United States. Its range extends further south along the Atlantic coast. One subspecies, the Florida salt marsh vole (M. p. dukecampbelli), is found in Florida, and is classified as endangered. It is also found in Chihuahua, Mexico. The meadow vole is active year-round, usually at night.
View Wikipedia Record: Microtus pennsylvanicus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
17
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.27
EDGE Score: 1.84

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  49 grams
Birth Weight [1]  2 grams
Female Maturity [1]  29 days
Male Maturity [1]  37 days
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Gestation [1]  21 days
Litter Size [1]  6
Litters / Year [1]  3
Nocturnal [2]  Yes
Weaning [1]  14 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Allegheny Highlands forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Arizona Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Brooks-British Range tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central and Southern mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central U.S. hardwood forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Colorado Plateau shrublands United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Colorado Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Cook Inlet taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Copper Plateau taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Eastern forest-boreal transition Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Flint Hills tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Fraser Plateau and Basin complex Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga Canada, United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Midwestern Canadian Shield forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Muskwa-Slave Lake forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
New England-Acadian forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Canadian Shield taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern Cordillera forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Pacific coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern transitional alpine forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Territories taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Central Rockies forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Hudson Bay taiga Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Torngat Mountain tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Wasatch and Uinta montane forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Wyoming Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Yukon Interior dry forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Antietam National Battlefield III 3263 Maryland, United States
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Bonanza Creek LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Alaska, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Devils Tower National Monument V 1361 Wyoming, United States
Edwin S. George Reserve 1297 Michigan, United States
El Malpais National Monument III 109980 New Mexico, United States
El Morro National Monument V 960 New Mexico, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fort Necessity National Battlefield III 1019 Pennsylvania, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grand Teton National Park II 231724 Wyoming, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Greenwater Provincial Park II 11019 Ontario, Canada
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Guilford Courthouse National Military Park V 216 North Carolina, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kejimkujik Seaside Adjunct National Park II 4970 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Knife River Indian Villages National Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1756 North Dakota, United States
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Revelstoke National Park Ia 18 British Columbia, Canada
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Pipestone National Monument V 326 Minnesota, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site III 139 New Hampshire, United States
San Francisco Peninsular Watershed County Wildlife Refuge or Management Area 30320 California, United States  
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Prey / Diet

Acer rubrum (red maple)[3]
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)[3]
Betula nigra (river birch)[3]
Cirsium vulgare (Spear Thistle)[3]
Crataegus viridis (desert hawthorn)[3]
Digitaria ischaemum (small crabgrass)[3]
Flavoparmelia caperata (flavoparmelia lichen)[3]
Ilex opaca (American holly)[3]
Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red-cedar)[3]
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)[3]
Pinus strobus (Eastern white pine)[3]
Pinus virginiana[3]
Populus grandidentata (bigtooth aspen)[3]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[3]
Quercus alba (White Oak)[3]
Quercus phellos (Willow Oak)[3]
Quercus velutina (Black Oak)[3]
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Common Ragweed)[3]
Chenopodium album (lambsquarters goosefoot)[3]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[3]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[3]
Rosa virginiana (Virginia Rose)[3]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)5
Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)7
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)6
Apis mellifera (honey bee)6
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)3
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)7
Bombus fervidus (Golden northern bumble bee)4
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)2
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)4
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)2
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)7
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)2
Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll)2
Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch)12
Castor canadensis (american beaver)11
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)2
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)2
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)10
Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)5
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)4
Diapheromera femorata (Common American Walkingstick)5
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum)3
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)4
Erynnis juvenalis (Juvenal's duskywing skipper)2
Gryllus pennsylvanicus (fall field cricket)4
Incisalia henrici (Henry's Elfin)2
Incisalia niphon (Eastern Pine Elfin)3
Lygocoris pabulinus (Common Green Capsid)2
Marmota monax (woodchuck)4
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)15
Mephitis mephitis (Striped Skunk)4
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)4
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)3
Nymphalis antiopa (camberwell beauty)5
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)18
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat)5
Papilio glaucus (Eastern tiger swallowtail)5
Papilio polyxenes (Eastern black swallowtail)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)2
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)2
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)11
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)5
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)6
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)8
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)2
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)3
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)5
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)12
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)4
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)5
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian Collared-Dove)2
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)2
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)2
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)15
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)12
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)5
Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox)6
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)8
Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)9

Predators

Aedes albopictus (forest day mosquito)[3]
Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)[4]
Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)[5]
Blarina brevicauda (Northern Short-tailed Shrew)[6]
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)[7]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[3]
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)[3]
Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake (atricaudatus))[8]
Crotalus viridis viridis (Prairie rattlesnake)[9]
Glaucidium gnoma (Northern Pygmy-Owl)[10]
Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snake)[3]
Megascops kennicottii macfarlanei (Western Screech-Owl)[11]
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Water Snake)[3]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[3]
Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Garter Snake)[3]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[3]

Providers

Parasite of 
Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)[3]
Shelter 
Ampelocissus latifolia (American ivy)[3]
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)[3]
Cephalanthus tetrandra (Buttonbush)[3]
Diphasiastrum digitatum (fan clubmoss)[3]
Hamamelis virginiana (American witchhazel)[3]
Hibiscus moscheutos (crimsoneyed rosemallow)[3]
Phragmites australis (common reed)[3]
Pteridium aquilinum (northern bracken fern)[3]
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)[3]
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry)[3]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[3]
Smilax rotundifolia (Horse Brier)[3]
Symphyotrichum dumosum (Small White Aster)[3]
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)[3]
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)[3]
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Common Ragweed)[3]
Chenopodium album (lambsquarters goosefoot)[3]
Panicum virgatum (old switch panic grass)[3]
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)[3]
Rosa virginiana (Virginia Rose)[3]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aetheca wagneri[12]
Amalaraeus dissimilis athabascae[12]
Amphipsylla marikovskii ewingi[12]
Amphipsylla sibirica pollionis[12]
Andrya communis <Unverified Name>[13]
Andrya macrocephala <Unverified Name>[13]
Atyphloceras bishopi[12]
Brachylaima thompsoni[13]
Capillaria hepatica[13]
Catallagia borealis[12]
Catallagia charlottensis[12]
Catallagia dacenkoi[12]
Catallagia decipiens[12]
Catallagia jellisoni[12]
Ceratophyllus vison[12]
Cladotaenia globifera[13]
Corrodopsylla curvata curvata[12]
Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes pseudagyrtes[12]
Delotelis telegoni[12]
Doratopsylla blarinae[12]
Echinococcus multilocularis[13]
Epitedia stanfordi[12]
Epitedia wenmanni wenmanni[12]
Eumolpianus eumolpi eumolpi[12]
Hoplopsyllus anomalus (rodent flea)[12]
Hymenolepis evaginata <Unverified Name>[13]
Hymenolepis horrida[13]
Hymenolepis johnsoni <Unverified Name>[13]
Hystrichopsylla dippiei dippiei[12]
Hystrichopsylla dippiei truncata[12]
Hystrichopsylla occidentalis linsdalei[12]
Hystrichopsylla occidentalis occidentalis[12]
Hystrichopsylla tahavuana[12]
Mediogonimus ovilacus[13]
Megabothris abantis[12]
Megabothris asio asio[12]
Megabothris asio megacolpus[12]
Megabothris calcarifer[12]
Megabothris groenlandicus[12]
Megabothris lucifer[12]
Megabothris quirini[12]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[12]
Nudacotyle novicia[13]
Opisodasys pseudarctomys[12]
Orchopeas howardi howardi[12]
Orchopeas leucopus (rodent flea)[12]
Oropsylla bruneri[12]
Paranoplocephala infrequens <Unverified Name>[13]
Paranoplocephala macrocephala <Unverified Name>[13]
Paranoplocephala variabilis <Unverified Name>[13]
Paruterina candelabraria <Unverified Name>[13]
Peromyscopsylla catatina[12]
Peromyscopsylla hamifer hamifer[12]
Peromyscopsylla hamifer vigens[12]
Peromyscopsylla ostsibirica[12]
Peromyscopsylla selenis[12]
Plagiorchis muris[13]
Polymorphus paradoxus[13]
Rhadinopsylla fraterna[12]
Rhadinopsylla orama[12]
Rictularia coloradensis <Unverified Name>[13]
Schistosomatium douthitti[13]
Taenia crassiceps[13]
Taenia mustelae[13]
Taenia taeniaeformis <Unverified Name>[13]
Thrassis petiolatus[12]

Range Map

Link to Map
Chippewa Nature Center; Mount Mitchell State Park; North America; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Musser G.G., 2004-06-09, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 4DIET OF NORTHERN SAW-WHET OWLS IN SOUTHERN WISCONSIN, SCOTT R. SWENGEL AND ANN B. SWENGEL, The Condor 94:707-711 (1992) 5BREEDING SEASON DIET OF SHORT-EARED OWLS IN MASSACHUSETTS, DENVER W. HOLT, Wilson Bull., 105(3), 1993, pp. 490-496 6Blarina brevicauda, Sarah B. George, Jerry R. Choate, and Hugh H. Genoways, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 261, pp. 1-9 (1986) 7DIET OF THE GREAT HORNED OWL IN THE CRESTON VALLEY, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1998 - 2005, Linda M. Van Damme, Wildlife Afield 2:2 December 2005, pp. 73-78 8Diet of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus, Rulon W. Clark, Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 494-499, 2002 9Diet of the Prairie Rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis viridis, in Southeastern Alberta, Margaret M. A. Hill, G. Lawrence Powell, and Anthony P. Russell, Canadian Field-Naturalist 115(2): 241-246 (2001) 10DIETS OF NORTHERN PYGMY-OWLS AND NORTHERN SAW-WHET OWLS IN WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA, DENVER W. HOLT AND LESLIE A. LEROUX, Wilson Bull., 108(1), 1996, pp. 123-128 11Davis, H., and RJ Cannings. 2008. Diet of Western Screech-Owls in the interior of British Columbia British Columbia Birds 18:19-22 12International Flea Database 13Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve Edwin S. George Reserve, University of Michigan, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Patterson, B. D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M. F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B. E. Young. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy—Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International—CABS, World Wildlife Fund—US, and Environment Canada—WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access