Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Sterna > Sterna forsteri
 

Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) is a member of the tern family, Sternidae. It breeds inland in North America and winters south to the Caribbean and northern South America.This species is rare but annual in western Europe, and has wintered in Ireland and Great Britain on a number of occasions. No European tern winters so far north.This species breeds in colonies in marshes. It nests in a ground scrape and lays three or more eggs.
View Wikipedia Record: Sterna forsteri

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
20
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.50482
EDGE Score: 1.70562

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  158 grams
Birth Weight [2]  14 grams
Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Male Maturity [2]  2 years
Clutch Size [3]  2
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Incubation [2]  23 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  12 years
Migration [1]  Intracontinental
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams, Coastal, Brackish Water

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alberta Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Atlantic coastal pine barrens United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Bahamian pine mosaic Bahamas Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Bahamoan-Antillean mangroves Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Mangroves      
Baja California desert Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bajío dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Balsas dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bermuda subtropical conifer forests United Kingdom Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Blue Mountains forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
British Columbia mainland coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands Canada Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Caribbean shrublands France, United Kingdom, Dominica, St. Lucia, Netherlands Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands      
Cascade Mountains leeward forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central American dry forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central and Southern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central British Columbia Mountain forests Canada Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Central forest-grasslands transition United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central tall grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cuban cactus scrub Cuba Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cuban dry forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cuban moist forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cuban pine forests Cuba Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests  
Cuban wetlands Cuba Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Enriquillo wetlands Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Everglades United States Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Florida sand pine scrub United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Gulf of California xeric scrub Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hispaniolan dry forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan moist forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Jalisco dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican dry forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Mid-Continental Canadian forests Canada Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mississippi lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
North Central Rockies forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico Neotropic Mangroves    
Northern mixed grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern short grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern tall grasslands Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Okanagan dry forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Palouse grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican dry forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Puerto Rican moist forests United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Puget lowland forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sinaloan dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Florida rocklands United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern conifer forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Southeastern mixed forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama Neotropic Mangroves    
Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Veracruz dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz moist forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Veracruz montane forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Great Lakes forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  
Willamette Valley forests United States Nearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yucatán dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Arkansas Post National Memorial National Monument V 424 Arkansas, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Biscayne National Park II 11085 Florida, United States
Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge IV 4842 Georgia, United States
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge VI 19192 Maryland, United States
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Buenavista Wetland Reserve 778949 Cuba    
Cabrillo National Monument V 149 California, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve 864738 British Columbia, Canada  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Creighton Ranch Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3275 California, United States  
Crosswinds Marsh Nature Preserve 1050 Michigan, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
Curecanti National Recreation Area V 31032 Colorado, United States
De Soto National Wildlife Refuge IV 8007 Iowa, Nebraska, United States
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Effigy Mounds National Monument V 1296 Iowa, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Fort Caroline National Memorial III 137 Florida, United States
Fort Matanzas National Monument III 269 Florida, United States
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fossil Butte National Monument III 8423 Wyoming, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge IV 21369 Wisconsin, United States
Hot Springs National Park II 5740 Arkansas, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Jepson Prairie Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 1553 California, United States
Kern River Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 834 California, United States
Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge VI 28351 Louisiana, United States
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Land Between the Lakes Biosphere Reserve V 166264 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Lava Beds National Monument III 20002 California, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Nipomo Dunes Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 3725 California, United States
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Paine Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 2965 California, United States    
Palo Verde National Park II 46190 Costa Rica  
Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center 6101 California, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Rondeau Provincial Park II 5035 Ontario, Canada
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Tawas Point State Park 183 Michigan, United States
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Vicksburg National Military Park V 1651 Mississippi, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
White Sands National Monument III 139922 New Mexico, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Barrier Island and Lagoon System USA A1, A4i    
Eastern Lake St. Clair Canada A4i, A4iii
Greater Rondeau Area Canada A4i, A4iii
Netley-Libau Marsh Canada A4i, A4iii

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caribbean Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks And Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands - British, Virgin Islands - U.S. No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[4]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[4]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[4]
Atherinops affinis (Topsmelt silverside)[5]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[4]
Cymatogaster aggregata (Shiner)[4]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[4]
Engraulis anchoita (Anchoita)[4]
Engraulis australis (Australian anchovy)[4]
Engraulis capensis (Southern African anchovy)[4]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[4]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[4]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[4]
Esox masquinongy (Maskinonge)[6]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[4]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[4]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[4]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[4]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[4]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[4]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[4]
Notropis hudsonius (Sucking carp)[6]
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)[6]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[4]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[4]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[4]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[4]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[4]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[4]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[4]
Spirinchus starksi (Night smelt)[5]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[4]
Trachurus mediterraneus (Mediterranean scad)[4]
Trachurus symmetricus (Scad)[4]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Esox lucius (Jack)2
Lota lota (Thin-tailed burbot)1
Micropterus dolomieu (Smallmouth bass)1
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)1
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)1
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)1
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)1
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)1
Salvelinus namaycush (American lake char)1
Sander vitreus (Walleye)1

Predators

Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Cardiocephalus megaloconus <Unverified Name>[7]
Euhaplorchis californiensis[4]
Galactosomum humbargari[4]
Mesostephanus appendiculatus[4]
Phocitremoides ovale[4]
Pygidiopsoides spindalis[4]
Renicola buchanani[4]
Renicola cerithidicola[4]
Stictodora hancocki[4]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society

Range Map

Caribbean; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository. 6Feeding Ecology and Nesting Success of Forster's Terns on Lake Osakis, Minnesota, Gail Fraser, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1994 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Crosswinds Marsh, Wayne County, Michigan GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Tawas Point State Park
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access