Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Laridae > Pagophila > Pagophila eburnea

Pagophila eburnea (Ivory Gull)

Synonyms: Larus eburnea; Larus eburneus
Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a small gull, the only species in the genus Pagophila. It breeds in the high Arctic and has a circumpolar distribution through Greenland, northernmost North America, and Eurasia.
View Wikipedia Record: Pagophila eburnea

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.13732
EDGE Score: 2.50753


Adult Weight [1]  1.21 lbs (550 g)
Female Maturity [1]  2 years
Male Maturity [1]  2 years
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic coastal
Wintering Geography [2]  Arctic Coast
Wintering Habitat [2]  Arctic coastal, Arctic polynyas
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [3]  40 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  30 %
Diet - Scavenger [3]  30 %
Forages - Ground [3]  70 %
Forages - Water Surface [3]  30 %
Clutch Size [1]  2
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  45,000
Incubation [1]  25 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  24 years
Migration [4]  Intercontinental
Wing Span [5]  3.7 feet (1.12 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
High Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Kalaallit Nunaat high arctic tundra Greenland Nearctic Tundra
Novosibirsk Islands arctic desert Russia Palearctic Tundra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Baikalo-Lensky Zapovednik Ia 1630896 Irkutsk, Russia
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Great Arctic State Nature Preserve 10302372 Taimyr, Russia
Gydansky State Nature Reserve 2170015 Yamalo-Nenets, Russia
Kenozersky National Park 345115 Arkhangelsk, Russia
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kronotsky Biosphere Reserve 2822275 Kamchatka Krai , Russia
Kurilsky State Nature Reserve 161520 Sakhalin, Russia    
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Ostrov Vrangelya (Wrangel Island) Zapovednik Nature Monument III 180 Russia    
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Samarskaya Luka National Park 314283 Samara, Russia
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Ukkusiksalik National Park II   Nunavut, Canada
Ust-Lensky State Nature Reserve 3541020 Sakha, Russia
Wrangel Island State Nature Reserve 5499701 Chukotka, Russia    

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Eastern Devon Island Nunataks Canada A1, A4i
Henrik Krøyer Holme Greenland (to Denmark) A4i, B1i, B2
Inglefield Mountains Canada A1, A4i
Inner parts of Kongsfjorden Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A3, B1i, B3
Izvestiy Tsik islands Russia (Asian) A3, A4i    
Kilen Greenland (to Denmark) A4i, B1i, B2
North-east Svalbard Nature Reserve Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Northwestern Brodeur Peninsula Canada A1, A4i
Seymour Island Canada A1, A4i  
Southwest Bylot Canada A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Sydkap Ice Field Canada A1, A4i

Prey / Diet

Apherusa glacialis[6]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[6]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[7]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[7]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[7]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[7]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[7]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[7]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[7]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[7]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[7]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[7]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[7]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alle alle (Little Auk)1
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)1
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)1
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)1
Monodon monoceros (Narwhal)1
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)1
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)1
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)1


Corvus corax (Northern Raven)[7]


Parasitized by 
Alcataenia micracantha[8]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[9]

Range Map

North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
5del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
6Ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) distribution in late summer and autumn in eastern Lancaster Sound and western Baffin Bay, Wayne E. Renaud, Peter L. McLaren, Arctic Vol. 35, No. 1 (March 1982), p. 141-148
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
9International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access