Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Anseriformes > Anatidae > Cygnus > Cygnus columbianus
 

Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)

Synonyms: Olor columbianus
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) is a small Holarctic swan. The two taxa within it are usually regarded as conspecific, but are also sometimes split into two species: Bewick's swan (Cygnus bewickii) of the Palaearctic and the whistling swan (C. columbianus) proper of the Nearctic. Birds from eastern Russia (roughly east of the Taimyr Peninsula) are sometimes separated as the subspecies C. c. jankowskii, but this is not widely accepted as distinct, most authors including them in C. c.
View Wikipedia Record: Cygnus columbianus

Infraspecies

Cygnus columbianus bewickii (Bewick's swan) (Attributes)
Cygnus columbianus columbianus (Whistling swan)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
21
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.00812
EDGE Score: 1.79311

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  14.88 lbs (6.75 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  179 grams
Female Weight [1]  13.89 lbs (6.30 kg)
Male Weight [1]  15.87 lbs (7.20 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  14.3 %
Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Male Maturity [2]  2 years
Clutch Size [3]  4
Clutches / Year [2]  1
Incubation [2]  31 days
Maximum Longevity [2]  24 years
Migration [4]  Intercontinental
Speed [5]  41.38 MPH (18.5 m/s)
Wing Span [5]  6.5 feet (1.98 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alaska Peninsula montane taiga United States Nearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Aleutian Islands tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Arctic coastal tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra    
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Arctic foothills tundra Canada, United States Nearctic Tundra
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Beringia lowland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Beringia upland tundra United States Nearctic Tundra
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
California Central Valley grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
California interior chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
California montane chaparral and woodlands United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Korean deciduous forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Pacific coastal forests Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chukchi Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Cascades forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Great Basin shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Klamath-Siskiyou forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Low Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Middle Arctic tundra Canada Nearctic Tundra
Middle Atlantic coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast Siberian coastal tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern California coastal forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Nevada forests United States Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Snake-Columbia shrub steppe United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Korea evergreen forests South Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western short grasslands United States Nearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Yamal-Gydan tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Anhui Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve 82385 Anhui, China      
Apostle Islands National Lakeshore II 36006 Wisconsin, United States
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Big Bend Biosphere Reserve National Park II 815561 Texas, United States
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Bryce Canyon National Park II 36348 Utah, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Hatteras National Seashore II 21476 North Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Chiemseegebiet mit Alz 25641 Germany  
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Curecanti National Recreation Area V 31032 Colorado, United States
Cuyahoga Valley National Park II 24907 Ohio, United States
DELTA EVROU 31031 Greece  
Death Valley National Park II 762125 California, Nevada, United States
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Dinosaur National Monument III 203307 Colorado, Utah, United States
Dye Creek Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 38152 California, United States  
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Fujian Wuyishan Nature Reserve V 206754 Fujian, China  
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
LIMNES VISTONIS, ISMARIS - LIMNOTHALASSES PORTO LAGOS, ALYKI PTELEA, XIROLIMNI, KARATZA 45016 Greece  
La Durance 49441 France  
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Long Point Biosphere Reserve 100325 Ontario, Canada  
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Märkische Schweiz 44399 Germany  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Niederung der Unteren Havel 69882 Germany  
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
Ozark National Scenic Riverways National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 54621 Missouri, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Padre Island National Seashore II 42068 Texas, United States
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge VI 23844 Oklahoma, United States
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sevilleta LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research IV 228335 New Mexico, United States
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve Ia 4403240 Taimyr, Russia
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
U. Rhinluch/Dreetzer See, Havell. Luch und Belziger Landschaftsw. 34455 Germany  
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Unteres Elbtal 131510 Germany  
Unteres Odertal 29097 Germany  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Virginia Coast Biosphere Reserve 33386 Virginia, United States  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
West Estonian Archipelago Biosphere Reserve 3854844 Estonia  
Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge IV 26618 Alabama, United States
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States
Yancheng Nature Reserve V 711488 China    
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Alam-Pedja Estonia A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C6
Amirkelayeh lake Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2  
Amur river mouth Russia (Asian) A1, A4i
Anzali Mordab complex Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Arun Valley United Kingdom A4iii, C4, C6
Avon Valley United Kingdom A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
Aylmer Wildlife Management Area Canada A4i
Ballycotton, Ballynamona and Shanagarry Ireland B2, C7
Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2  
Beaver Lake Canada A4i
Berezovye islands of Vyborg Bay Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i
Berzpils bogs and flood-plains Latvia A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Biesbosch Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Big Lake Canada A4i, A4iii
Bol'shoye and Maloye lakes Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Bolle and Try meadows Denmark A4i, B1i, B2, C2
Breydon Water United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C4, C6  
Broadland United Kingdom B1i, B2, C3, C6  
Cahore marshes Ireland B1i, B2, C2, C3
Camargue France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Central Yukon-Kuskokwim USA A1, A4i
Coastal areas of eastern Gotland island Sweden A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6    
Coastal Saginaw Bay (Nayanquing Point to Wildfowl Bay) USA A4i
Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area Canada A4i, A4iii
Cumberland Marshes Canada A4i, A4iii
De Wilck Netherlands A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6
Dee Estuary United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Dongting Hu wetlands China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Dungeness To Pett Levels United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Durnesh Lough Ireland B1i, B2, B3, C2
Dvuob'ye Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Eastern Lake St. Clair Canada A4i, A4iii
Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge USA A4i
Eastern part of Vejlerne Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Etang de Lindre France B1i, B2, C3, C6
Fiilsø Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Forty islands Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Frank Lake (south) Canada A4i, A4iii
Frome Flood-plain United Kingdom B2, C6
Gelderse Poort Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Greater Rondeau Area Canada A4i, A4iii
Grevelingen Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Hachirogata Japan A1, A4i, A4iii
Hasamagawa river Japan A4i
IJssel: IJsselkop-Ketelmeer Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C4, C6
IJzervallei-De Blankaart Belgium A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Irbe strait Latvia A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii
Irbe strait Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Junam reservoir South Korea A1, A4i
Kahtla-Kübassaare Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6
Kanin peninsula Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i
Kava valley Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Küdema bay Estonia A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C6  
Khadyn lake Russia (Asian) A1, A4i
Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay Finland A4i, B1i, C2
Kolyma delta Russia (Asian) A1, A3, A4i
Krekengebied Belgium A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6
Kyu-Osatsunuma Japan A4i
Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux France A4i, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6
Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient France A4i, A4iii, B1i, B1iv, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lahemaa Estonia A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C6
Lahepera lake Estonia A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Lake Drontermeer Netherlands A4i, B1i, B2, C2
Lake Eemmeer Netherlands A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
Lake Fukushimagata Japan A4i
Lake Gooimeer Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lake Hyoko Japan A4i, A4iii
Lake Inawashiroko Japan A4i
Lake Koetoi-Onuma Japan A4i  
Lake Kuccharoko Japan A4i, A4iii
Lake Nakaumi Japan A4i, A4iii
Lake Sakata Japan A4i
Lake Toyanogata Japan A4i
Lake Uromiyeh Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Lake Utonaiko, Yufutsu plain Japan A4i
Lake Veersemeer Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Lake Veluwemeer Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C4, C6
Lake Wolderwijd Netherlands A4i, B1i, B2, C2
Lake Zuidlaardermeer and Onnerpolder Netherlands A4i, B1i, B2, C2  
Lapoo: Zargmarz ab-bandans Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Lauwersmeer Netherlands A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C6  
Lavassaare Estonia A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Lønnerup Fjord Denmark A4i, B1i, C2
Lena delta Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Lesser Slave Lake PP Canada A4i
Long Point Peninsula and Marshes Canada A4i, A4iii
Lough Foyle Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4  
Lough Foyle and River Foyle United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Lough Gill Ireland B2, B3, C7  
Lough Iron and Glen Lough Ireland B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3
Lough Neagh and Lough Beg United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Lover Ob' Russia (Central Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Lower Derwent Valley United Kingdom A4iii, B1i, B2, C3, C4, C6
Lower Mackenzie River Islands Canada A4i, A4iii
Lower Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A3, A4i, A4iii
Lubans and fish-ponds Latvia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Luck Lake Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Luitemaa Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
M'Clintock Bay to Lewes River Marsh Canada A4i, A4iii
Mackenzie River Delta Canada A4i, A4iii  
Martin Mere United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Mawarizeki and Sunazawa reservoir Japan A4i
Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Middle Ishikarigawa basin Japan A4i, A4iii
Mills Lake Canada A4i, A4iii
Mogamigawa estuary Japan A4i, A4iii
Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island Estonia A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C6
Muna River Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Nätsi-Võlla Estonia A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Nemunas delta regional Park Lithuania A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Nene Washes United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Nissum Fjord Denmark A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6
North Wicklow coastal marshes Ireland B1i, B2, C3, C6
North-western subburbs of St.-Petersburg Russia (European) A4i, B1i
Oak Lake/Plum Lakes Area Canada A4i, A4iii
Oosterschelde Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6  
Ouse Washes United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Pakri Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4  
Pärnu bay (NEW) Estonia A4i, A4iii, B1i, C2, C3, C4, C6
Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge USA A4i
Peipsi Estonia A4i, B1i, C2
Pelican Lake Canada A4i, A4iii
Petrocrepost' Bay Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i
Pocosin Lakes/ Pungo National Wildlife Refuge USA A4i
Polder Arkemheen Netherlands A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6
Queen Maud Gulf Canada A4i, A4iii
Radisson Lake Canada A1, A4i, A4iii
Rahasane turlough Ireland B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3
Rasmussen Lowlands Canada A4i, A4iii
Reed Lake Canada A4i, A4iii
Reeuwijkse Plassen Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4
Ribble and Alt Estuaries United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Rijn: Heteren-Amerongen Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C4, C6
Ringkøbing Fjord Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
River Blackwater callows Ireland B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3
River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge: River Shannon Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4
River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone Ireland A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
River Suck callows: Shannon Bridge-Castlecoote Ireland A4i, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3
Ropka-Ihaste Estonia A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C6
Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Rottige Meenthe and Brandemeer Netherlands A4i, B1i, B2, C2
Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra Russia (European) A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2  
Sayan reservoir (Tuva part) Russia (Asian) A4i
Seskar island Russia (European) A1, A4i, B1i  
Severn Estuary United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes Iran, Islamic Republic of A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Siiksaare-Oessaare bays Estonia A4i, B1i, C2, C3, C6
Skjern Å Denmark A4i, B1i, B2, C2  
Somerset Levels and Moors United Kingdom B1i, B2, C3, C6
Soomaa Estonia A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C6
South Shore Great Slave Lake (Slave River Delta to Taltson Bay) Canada A4i, A4iii
Southern coast of the Neva bay Russia (European) A4i, B1i
Stabannan-Braganstown Ireland A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C3, C4
Stadil Fjord and Veststadil Fjord Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Store Vildmose, Ryå and Stavad Enge Denmark A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6
Swans area (southern shore of Finski Bay) Russia (European) A4i, A4iii, B1i
Tacumshin lake Ireland B1i, B2, C7
Tagamõisa peninsula Estonia A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C3  
Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
The Cull and Killag Ireland A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3
The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon Lithuania A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i    
The Wash United Kingdom A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Thedford Flats Canada A4i
Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose Denmark A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C6  
Tobin Lake Canada A4i
Ulukhkol' lake Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4iii
Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6
Unskaya bay Russia (European) A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i  
Upper and Middle Yuribey Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Upper Barrow flood-plain Ireland A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3, C2, C4
Upper Naknek River USA A4i
Val d'Allier Bourbonnais France A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6
Valley of the Yorkutayakha river Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3, A4iii
Vaygach island Russia (European) A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Väinameri Estonia A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Võrtsjärv Estonia A1, A4i, B1i, C1, C2, C3, C6
Vyborgski Bay Russia (European) A4i, B1i
Waal: Ewijk-Waardenburg Netherlands A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C3, C4, C6
Walmore Common United Kingdom B2, C6
Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn Denmark A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C2, C4, C6
Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve China (mainland) A1, A4i, A4iii
Zwarte Water and Overijsselse Vecht Netherlands A4i, B1i, C2, C3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Agrostis stolonifera (carpet bentgrass)[6]
Alopecurus geniculatus (marsh meadow-foxtail)[6]
Carex disticha (tworank sedge)[6]
Carex riparia (Great Pond Sedge)[6]
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)[6]
Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass)[6]
Deschampsia cespitosa (Tufted Hair-grass)[6]
Elymus repens (quackgrass)[6]
Ficaria verna subsp. verna[6]
Glyceria fluitans (water mannagrass)[6]
Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass)[6]
Holcus lanatus (common velvetgrass)[6]
Jacobaea aquatica[6]
Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)[6]
Mya arenaria (Clam)[6]
Persicaria amphibia (water knotweed)[6]
Persicaria maculosa (Redshank)[6]
Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass)[6]
Pisum sativum (Common Pea)[6]
Plantago media (lanceleaf plantain)[6]
Poa trivialis (rough bluegrass)[6]
Potamogeton lucens (long-leaf pondweed)[6]
Potamogeton perfoliatus (claspingleaf pondweed)[6]
Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup)[6]
Rorippa palustris (Yellow cress)[6]
Rumex crispus (narrowleaf dock)[6]
Ruppia cirrhosa (spiral ditchgrass)[6]
Solanum tuberosum (Irish potato)[6]
Stuckenia pectinata (sago pondweed)[6]
Stuckenia vaginata (sheathed pondweed)[6]
Trifolium repens (Ladino Clover)[6]
Triticum aestivum (common wheat)[6]
Vallisneria spiralis (Eel Grass)[6]
Zea mays (corn)[6]

Predators

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)[6]
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)[6]
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)[6]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[6]
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)[6]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[6]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amidostomum anseris <Unverified Name>[7]
Amidostomum cygni <Unverified Name>[7]
Catatropis cygni <Unverified Name>[7]
Epomidiostomum orispinum <Unverified Name>[7]
Sarconema eurycerca <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Al-Wabra Wildlife Preservationbewickii
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstanbewickii
Arundel Wildfowl & Wetlands Trustbewickii
Assiniboine Park Zoocolumbianus
Blackbrook Zoological Park
 bewickii
Burger's Zoobewickii
Castle Espie Wildfowl & Wetlands Trustbewickii
Dakota Zoocolumbianus
Lake Superior Zoological Gardenscolumbianus
Martin Mere Wildfowl & Wetlands Trustbewickii
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsawbewickii
Moscow Zoological Parkbewickii
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Councilbewickii
Nogeyama Zoological Gardens Yokohama
Novosibirsk Zoological Parkbewickii
Oklahoma City Zoological Parkcolumbianus
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Park
 columbianus
Pensthorpe Conservation Trust Limitedbewickii
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Parkcolumbianus
Salisbury Zoological Parkcolumbianus
Slimbridge New Grounds W&WTrustbewickii
Tallinn Zoobewickii
Tautphaus Park Zoocolumbianus
Ueno Zoological Gardensbewickii
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifaunabewickii
Washington Waterfowl Park W&WTbewickii
Willow Park Zoocolumbianus
Woodland Park Zoological Gardenscolumbianus
Zoo New England, Franklin Park Zoocolumbianus
Zoo Zürichbewickii
ZooAmerica (No. American Wildlife Pk.)columbianus
Zoologischer Garten Leipzigbewickii

Range Map

Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Limpert, RJ, and Earnst, SL 1994. Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus). In The birds of North America. No. 89. Edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 5Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Ramsar Sites Information Service Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access