Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Procellariiformes > Procellariidae > Fulmarus > Fulmarus glacialis

Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), fulmar, or Arctic fulmar is a highly abundant sea bird found primarily in subarctic regions of the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. There has been one confirmed sighting in the Southern Hemisphere, with a single bird seen south of New Zealand. Fulmars come in one of two color morphs: a light one, with white head and body and gray wings and tail, and a dark one which is uniformly gray. Though similar in appearance to gulls, fulmars are in fact members of the Procellariidae family, which include petrels and shearwaters.
View Wikipedia Record: Fulmarus glacialis


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 12.5502
EDGE Score: 2.6064


Adult Weight [2]  1.35 lbs (613 g)
Birth Weight [4]  65 grams
Female Weight [2]  1.27 lbs (577 g)
Male Weight [2]  1.43 lbs (649 g)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  12.5 %
Female Maturity [4]  6 years
Male Maturity [4]  6 years
Breeding Habitat [3]  Coastal cliffs and islands, Coastal marine
Wintering Geography [3]  Widespread Oceans
Wintering Habitat [3]  Pelagic
Diet [5]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [5]  60 %
Diet - Invertibrates [5]  40 %
Forages - Water Surface [5]  80 %
Forages - Underwater [5]  20 %
Clutch Size [4]  1
Clutches / Year [4]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [3]  14,000,000
Incubation [4]  55 days
Maximum Longevity [4]  51 years
Migration [1]  Intercontinental
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Coastal
Wing Span [6]  3.5 feet (1.07 m)


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Arctic desert Norway, Russia Palearctic Tundra    
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra Iceland Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Andakill Protected Habitat Area 7626 Iceland      
Ascrib, Isay and Dunvegan 6388 Scotland, United Kingdom
Beara Peninsula SPA 6493 Ireland  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Camaret 3148 France  
Cap Gris-Nez 138933 France    
Cap Sizun 1399 France  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Chesil and the Fleet 4032 England, United Kingdom
Cliffs of Moher SPA 2160 Ireland  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Deenish Island and Scariff Island SPA 2090 Ireland  
Dingle Peninsula SPA 9670 Ireland    
Doggerbank 419820 Germany      
Dungeness 7966 England, United Kingdom
East Caithness Cliffs 1094 Scotland, United Kingdom
Elkhorn Slough Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 964 California, United States  
Fair Isle 1387 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Fal and Helford 15785 England, United Kingdom    
Falaise du Bessin Occidental 2965 France    
Faray and Holm of Faray 1941 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Flamborough Head 15597 England, United Kingdom  
Galley Head to Duneen Point SPA 1029 Ireland  
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glannau Ynys Gybi/ Holy Island Coast 1147 Wales, United Kingdom  
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Great Orme`s Head/ Pen y Gogarth 748 Wales, United Kingdom  
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Helvick Head to Ballyquin SPA 1939 Ireland  
Horn Head to Fanad Head SPA 6006 Ireland    
Hoy 23474 Scotland, United Kingdom
Inishbofin, Inishdooey and Inishbeg SPA 1493 Ireland    
Inishmurray SPA 581 Ireland  
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Isle of Portland to Studland Cliffs 3577 England, United Kingdom
Iveragh Peninsula SPA 8620 Ireland  
Kerry Head SPA 2378 Ireland  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
LITTORAL SEINO-MARIN 367957 France    
Lambay Island SPA 1482 Ireland  
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru 3940 Wales, United Kingdom  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Loch of Stenness 1957 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Monach Islands 9011 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Mor Braz 99524 France    
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
North Antrim Coast 777 Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
North Bull Island Nature Reserve IV 3544 Ireland  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North-east Greenland National Park II 237590314 Greenland
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Ouessant-Molène 190983 France  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Papa Stour 5132 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Polruan to Polperro 527 England, United Kingdom
Puffin Island SPA 863 Ireland  
Ramsar-Gebiet S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1146339 Germany  
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve VI 6176727 Mexico  
Ronas Hill – North Roe 12110 Scotland, United Kingdom  
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Sanday 27112 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Santa Cruz Island Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve 46021 California, United States
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area V 38440 California, United States
Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent 606421 France  
Seevogelschutzgebiet Helgoland 398663 Germany    
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sheep's Head to Toe Head SPA 6181 Ireland    
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Skelligs SPA 1543 Ireland      
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
St David`s / Ty Ddewi 2312 Wales, United Kingdom  
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Stromness Heaths and Coast 1571 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Sullom Voe 6668 Scotland, United Kingdom
The Bull and The Cow Rocks SPA 940 Ireland  
The Lizard 8048 England, United Kingdom    
Tiree Machair 1941 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Tory Island SPA 1501 Ireland    
Treshnish Isles 4850 Scotland, United Kingdom
Urdaibaiko Itsasadarra / Ría de Urdaibai 8011 Spain  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
West Donegal Coast SPA 8347 Ireland    
Yell Sound Coast 3807 Scotland, United Kingdom

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Baillarge Bay Canada A4iii
Bjørnøya (Bear Island) Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2  
Buchan Gulf Canada A4iii
Cape Searle Canada A4ii, A4iii    
Cape Vera Canada A4iii
Chagulak Island USA A4ii    
Commander islands Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Foula United Kingdom A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C    
Hobhouse Inlet Canada A4iii
Iony island Russia (Asian) A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Jan Mayen island Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2  
Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Látrabjarg Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2, B3    
Mykines and Mykineshólmur Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3    
Olyutorskiy cape: Irina cape Russia (Asian) A4ii, A4iii
Prince Leopold Island Canada A4ii, A4iii  
Reid Bay Canada A4ii, A4iii  
Sandoy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3
Scott Inlet Canada A4iii  
Skúvoy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3
St Kilda United Kingdom A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3, C2, C3, C4, C6    
Streymoy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3  
Suduroy Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3
Tyuleniy island Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Utashud island Russia (Asian) A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Vágar Faroe Islands (to Denmark) A4ii, A4iii, B1ii, B2, B3  
Vestmannaeyjar Iceland A4i, A4ii, A4iii, B1i, B1ii, B2
Yamsk archipelago Russia (Asian) A4ii, A4iii    

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[7]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[7]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[8]
Apherusa glacialis[7]
Arctozenus risso (Spotted barracudina)[7]
Argentina silus (Atlantic argentine)[7]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[7]
Calanus finmarchicus[7]
Calanus hyperboreus[7]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[7]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[7]
Doryteuthis opalescens (california market squid)[9]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[7]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[7]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[7]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[7]
Gonatus fabricii (boreoatlantic armhook squid)[7]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[7]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[10]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[7]
Limacina helicina (helicid pteropod)[7]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[7]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[7]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[7]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[8]
Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Norwegian krill)[7]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[7]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[7]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[7]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[7]
Neocalanus cristatus[11]
Neocalanus flemingeri[11]
Neocalanus plumchrus[11]
Onisimus glacialis[7]
Onisimus nanseni[7]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[7]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[7]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[7]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[7]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[7]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[7]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[7]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[7]
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)[7]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[7]
Themisto abyssorum[7]
Themisto libellula[7]
Thysanoessa inermis[11]
Thysanoessa spinifera[11]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[7]
Trisopterus minutus (poor cod)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aethia pusilla (Least Auklet)2
Aethia pygmaea (Whiskered Auklet)1
Alca torda (Razorbill)2
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)1
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)1
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)2
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)3
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)2
Balaenoptera musculus (Blue Whale)2
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)3
Bathyraja interrupta (Sandpaper skate)2
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)1
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)3
Calonectris diomedea (Scopoli's Shearwater)1
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)1
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)1
Chroicocephalus philadelphia (Bonaparte's Gull)1
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)1
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)1
Diaphus theta (California headlightfish)2
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)1
Eubalaena glacialis (Northern Right Whale)1
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)3
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)1
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)1
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)2
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)2
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)1
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)1
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)2
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)1
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)1
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)1
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)1
Lampanyctus jordani (Brokenline lanternfish)2
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)2
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)1
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)2
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)1
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)3
Melamphaes lugubris (Highsnout bigscale)1
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)1
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)1
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)2
Nannobrachium regale (Small-eyed lantern-fish)1
Nansenia candida (Bluethroat argentine)2
Oceanodroma furcata (Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel)1
Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Leach's Storm-Petrel)1
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (humpbacked salmon)1
Oncorhynchus keta (Calico salmon)1
Oncorhynchus nerka (sockeye salmon or kokanee)1
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)1
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)1
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)1
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)1
Phoca largha (Spotted Seal)1
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)1
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)2
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)1
Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Cassin's Auklet)1
Puffinus gravis (Greater Shearwater)1
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)1
Puffinus puffinus (Manx Shearwater)1
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)2
Pusa hispida (Ringed Seal)1
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)1
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)4
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)1
Sebastes alutus (Snapper)1
Sebastes diploproa (Splitnose rockfish)1
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)1
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)1
Sebastes pinniger (Rockfish)1
Sebastes serranoides (Rockfish)1
Sigmops gracilis (Slender fangjaw)1
Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Smallfin lanternfish)1
Stenobrachius nannochir (Garnet lampfish)2
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)1
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)1
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)2
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)1
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)2
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)1
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)1


Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)[7]
Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)[12]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[7]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[7]


Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[13]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus insularis[14]
Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus[14]
Contracaecum variegatum <Unverified Name>[13]
Dasypsyllus gallinulae gallinulae[14]
Seuratia shipleyi <Unverified Name>[13]
Stegophorus stellaepolaris <Unverified Name>[13]
Tetrabothrius erostris[13]
Wardium cirrosa[13]

Range Map

North America; Oceania;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Hatch, SA, Nettleship, DN, 1998. Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). In: Poole, A., Gill, F. (Eds.), The Birds of North America, No. 361. The Birds of North America Inc., Philadelphia, PA
3Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
6British Trust for Ornithology
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8An estimate of summer food consumption of six seabird species in Iceland, K. Lilliendahl and J. Solmundsson, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54: 624–630. 1997
9Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository.
10Feeding Spectrum and Trophic Relationships of Short-finned Squid (Illex illecebrosus) in the Northwest Atlantic, Yu. M. Froerman, NAFO Sci. Coun. Studies, 7: 67-75 (1984)
11Seabird distribution, abundance and diets in the eastern and central Aleutian Islands, J. JAHNCKE, K. O. COYLE AND GEORGE L. HUNT, JR, Fish. Oceanogr. 14 (Suppl. 1), 160–177, 2005
12POTAPOV, E. 2011. Gyrfalcon diet: Spatial and temporal variation In R. T. Watson, T. J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (Eds.). Gyrfalcons and Ptarmigan in a Changing World. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA
13Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
14International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Ramsar Sites Information Service
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access