Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Sphenisciformes > Spheniscidae > Spheniscus > Spheniscus magellanicus

Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) is a South American penguin, breeding in coastal Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands, with some migrating to Brazil where they are occasionally seen as far north as Rio de Janeiro. It is the most numerous of the Spheniscus penguins. Its nearest relatives are the African, the Humboldt and the Galápagos penguins. The Magellanic penguin was named after Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who spotted the birds in 1520.
View Wikipedia Record: Spheniscus magellanicus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.41932
EDGE Score: 2.93591


Adult Weight [2]  9.08 lbs (4.12 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  107 grams
Female Weight [2]  8.31 lbs (3.77 kg)
Male Weight [2]  9.85 lbs (4.47 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  18.6 %
Female Maturity [5]  2 years 10 months
Male Maturity [5]  2 years 10 months
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [4]  90 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  10 %
Forages - Underwater [4]  100 %
Clutch Size [5]  1
Incubation [5]  40 days
Maximum Longevity [5]  30 years
Migration [1]  Intracontinental
Water Biome [1]  Coastal


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Low Monte Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Magellanic subpolar forests Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Patagonian steppe Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Scotia Sea Islands tundra United Kingdom Antarctic Tundra    
Valdivian temperate forests Chile, Argentina Neotropic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Los Glaciares National Park II 1329020 Santa Cruz, Argentina
Parque Atlantico Mar Chiquita Nature Reserve VI 706059 Cordoba, Argentina  
Parque Nacional Laguna San Rafael National Park II 4560904 Aisén, Chile  
Tierra Del Fuego National Park II 172861 Argentina

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Beaver Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A4ii    
Bertha's Beach, East Falkland Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4iii
Bleaker Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4i
Bull Point, East Falkland Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii
Cabo Vírgenes Argentina A1, A4ii, A4iii    
Canal Beagle Argentina A1, A2
Complejo Islote Lobos Argentina A1, A4i    
Complejo Punta Tombo: Punta Atlas Argentina A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Elephant Cays Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A4ii, A4iii
Estuario del Río Coyle Argentina A1, A3, A4i
Estuario del Río Gallegos Argentina A1, A2, A3, A4i
Hope Harbour, West Falkland Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii  
Isla de los Estados, Islas de Año Nuevo e islotes adyacentes Argentina A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii  
Jason Islands Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii    
Keppel Island Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2  
Kidney Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii
Lively Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2  
New Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii    
Norte del Golfo San Jorge Argentina A1, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Parque Nacional Monte León Argentina A1, A4ii, A4iii
Pebble Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4iii  
Península Mitre Argentina A1, A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Península y Bahía de San Julián Argentina A1, A3, A4ii, A4iii  
Playa Punta Mogotes y Puerto de Mar del Plata Argentina A1, A4i
Punta Gutierrez: Bahía Camarones Argentina A1
Ría Deseado e islas adyacentes Argentina A1, A4ii, A4iii
San Antonio Oeste Argentina A1, A4i, A4iii
Saunders Island Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Sea Lion Islands Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2
Seal Bay, East Falkland Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4iii  
Sistema Península de Valdés Argentina A1, A3, A4i, A4ii, A4iii  
Speedwell Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4i, A4ii, A4iii
Villa marítima El Cóndor Argentina A1
Volunteer Point, East Falkland Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2    
West Point Island Group Falkland Islands (Malvinas) A1, A2, A4ii, A4iii  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests Chile No

Prey / Diet

Agonopsis chiloensis (Snailfish)[6]
Belone belone (Garfish)[6]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[6]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[6]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[6]
Cololabis saira (Skipper)[6]
Doryteuthis gahi[7]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[6]
Engraulis anchoita (Anchoita)[7]
Engraulis australis (Australian anchovy)[6]
Engraulis capensis (Southern African anchovy)[6]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[6]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[6]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[6]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[6]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[6]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[6]
Illex argentinus (Argentine Shortfin Squid)[6]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[6]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[6]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[6]
Merluccius hubbsi (Southwest Atlantic hake)[8]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[7]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[6]
Munida gregaria[7]
Odontesthes smitti (Silverside)[7]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[6]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[6]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[6]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[6]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[6]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[6]
Scomberesox saurus (Atlantic saury)[6]
Sprattus fuegensis (chicken sprat)[7]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aptenodytes patagonicus (King Penguin)1
Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Commerson's Dolphin)4
Cephalorhynchus eutropia (Chilean Dolphin)1
Cynoscion guatucupa (Stripped weakfish)1
Diomedea exulans (Wandering Albatross)1
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)1
Lagenorhynchus australis (Peale's Dolphin)3
Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Dusky Dolphin)3
Leucocarbo atriceps (imperial shag)3
Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Neotropic Cormorant)1
Phalacrocorax magellanicus (rock shag)2
Phocoena spinipinnis (Burmeister's Porpoise)1
Rynchops niger (Black Skimmer)1
Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt Penguin)2
Sterna hirundinacea (South American Tern)1
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)1


Phalcoboenus australis (Striated Caracara)[9]


Parasitized by 
Cardiocephalus physalis <Unverified Name>[10]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Listronius robertsianus[11]
Parapsyllus longicornis[11]
Parapsyllus magellanicus magellanicus[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Acquario di Genova
Aquarium of the Pacific, Long Beach
Blackpool Zoo
Blank Park Zoo of Des Moines
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
John Ball Zoological Garden
John G. Shedd Aquarium
Monterey Bay Aquarium
Oceanario de Lisboa
Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium
Potter Park Zoological Gardens
Saint Louis Zoological Park
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Zoo Boise
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH

Range Map



Aquarium of the Pacific Penguin Beach
Cam Time:
Hours: - ( - )


Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Marchant, S.; Higgins, PJ (eds.) 1990. The handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, Vol. 1., ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne
3Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Diet of the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) in northern and southern Chile, C. Herling, B. M. Culik, J. C. Hennicke, Marine Biology (2005) 147: 13–25
9Population growth and density, diet and breeding success of striated caracaras Phalcoboenus australis on New Island, Falkland Islands, Paulo Catry, Miguel Lecoq, Ian J. Strange, Polar Biology Volume 31, Number 10, 1167-1174
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
11International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access