Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Sphenisciformes > Spheniscidae > Eudyptula > Eudyptula minor

Eudyptula minor (Little Penguin)

Wikipedia Abstract

The little penguin (Eudyptula minor) is the smallest species of penguin. It grows to an average of 33 cm (13 in) in height and 43 cm (17 in) in length, though specific measurements vary by subspecies. It is found on the coastlines of southern Australia and New Zealand, with possible records from Chile. In Australia, they are often called fairy penguins because of their small size. In New Zealand, they are more commonly known as little blue penguins or blue penguins owing to their slate-blue plumage. They are also known by their Māori name: kororā.
View Wikipedia Record: Eudyptula minor


Eudyptula minor albosignata (White-flippered Penguin)
Eudyptula minor chathamensis (Chatham little blue penguin)
Eudyptula minor iredalei (Blue penguin) (Attributes)
Eudyptula minor minor (Blue penguin) (Attributes)
Eudyptula minor novaehollandiae (Blue penguin) (Attributes)
Eudyptula minor variabilis (Blue penguin)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 16.9375
EDGE Score: 2.88689


Adult Weight [2]  2.65 lbs (1.20 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  52 grams
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [4]  80 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  20 %
Forages - Underwater [4]  100 %
Clutch Size [3]  2
Incubation [5]  39 days
Maximum Longevity [5]  16 years
Water Biome [1]  Coastal


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Chatham Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Coorong National Park II 121235 South Australia, Australia
Croajingolong National Park II 217067 Victoria, Australia
Fitzgerald River National Park II 732417 Western Australia, Australia
Flinders Chase National Park II 81245 South Australia, Australia
Lavinia Nature Reserve State Reserve II 17390 Tasmania, Australia    
Maria Island National Park II 28488 Tasmania, Australia
Wilson's Promontory National Park II 119279 Victoria, Australia

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
New Zealand New Zealand No
Southwest Australia Australia No

Prey / Diet

Auchenoceros punctatus (Ahuru)[6]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[7]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[7]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[7]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[7]
Engraulis anchoita (Anchoita)[7]
Engraulis australis (Australian anchovy)[7]
Engraulis capensis (Southern African anchovy)[7]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[7]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[7]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[7]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[7]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[7]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[7]
Hyperlophus vittatus (Whitebait)[8]
Hyporhamphus melanochir (dusky sea garfish)[8]
Kondakovia longimana (Giant Warty Squid)[7]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[7]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[7]
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)[7]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[7]
Pleurogrammus azonus (Okhotsk atka mackerel)[7]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[7]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[7]
Pseudophycis bachus (Southern rockcod)[6]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[7]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[8]
Spratelloides robustus (Blue sardine)[8]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Arctocephalus forsteri (Australasian Fur Seal)2
Arripis trutta (Salmon trout)2
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus (Fiordland Penguin)2
Eudyptes robustus (Snares Penguin)1
Leucocarbo colensoi (Auckland Islands shag)1
Megadyptes antipodes (Yellow-eyed Penguin)2
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)2
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)1
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)1


Neophoca cinerea (Australian Sealion)[7]


Parasitized by 
Andracantha clavata[7]
Contracaecum eudyptulae <Unverified Name>[9]
Contracaecum spiculigerum[9]
Corynosoma australe[7]
Parapsyllus australiacus[10]
Parapsyllus jacksoni[10]
Parapsyllus longicornis[10]
Tetrabothrius lutzi[11]
Toxoplasma gondii <Unverified Name>[11]
Trypanosoma eudyptulae <Unverified Name>[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Adelaide Zoonovaehollandiae
Auckland Zoological Parkminor
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Dallas World Aquariumnovaehollandiae
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Melbourne Zoonovaehollandiae
National Zoo & Aquariumnovaehollandiae
New England Aquariumnovaehollandiae
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Perth Zoological Gardensnovaehollandiae
Pet Porpoise Pool Pty. Ltd.novaehollandiae
Taronga Zoonovaehollandiae
Tokyo Sea Life Parknovaehollandiae
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertalnovaehollandiae

Range Map




Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Anatomy and Histochemistry of Flight Muscles in a Wing-Propelled Diving Bird, the Atlantic Puffin, Fratercula arctica, Christopher E. Kovacs and Ron A. Meyers, JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY 244:109–125 (2000)
3Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Intrinsic aging-related mortality in birds, Robert E. Ricklefs, JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY 31: 103–111. Copenhagen 2000
6Yolanda Van Heezik (1990) Diets of yellow-eyed, Fiordland crested, and little blue penguins breeding sympatrically on Codfish Island, New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 17:4, 543-548
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Diet of little penguins, Eudyptula minor, from Penguin Island, Western Australia, NI Klomp and RD Wooller, Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39(5) 633 - 639
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
10International Flea Database
11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access