Animalia > Arthropoda > Insecta > Lepidoptera > Papilionoidea > Pieridae > Pieris > Pieris rapae
 

Pieris rapae (imported cabbageworm)

Synonyms: Pieris brassciae var. crucivora; Pieris rapae flavescens

Wikipedia Abstract

The Small White (Pieris rapae) is a small- to medium-sized butterfly species of the Yellows-and-Whites family Pieridae. It is also known as the Small Cabbage White and in New Zealand, simply as White Butterfly. The names "Cabbage Butterfly" and "Cabbage White" can also refer to the Large White. It is widespread and populations are found across Europe, North Africa, Asia, and Great Britain.
View Wikipedia Record: Pieris rapae

Attributes

Litter Size [1]  430
Wing Span [2]  1.7 inches (.044 m)

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Bath and Bradford-on-Avon Bats 265 England, United Kingdom  
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Mendip Limestone Grasslands 1032 England, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay Pavements 6449 England, United Kingdom
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
River Eden 6087 England, United Kingdom  
Roman Wall Loughs 1691 England, United Kingdom  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Solway Mosses 4849 England, United Kingdom
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Witherslack Mosses 1202 England, United Kingdom

Ecosystems

Prey / Diet

Ajuga reptans (common bugle)[3]
Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard)[4]
Armoracia rusticana (Horseradish)[4]
Brassica napus (Rapeseed)[4]
Brassica oleracea (broccoli)[4]
Brassica rapa (Field Mustard)[4]
Cakile maritima (Sea Rocket)[5]
Calluna vulgaris (heather)[3]
Centaurea jacea (Brown Knapweed)[3]
Cephalanthus tetrandra (Buttonbush)[6]
Cirsium palustre (Marsh Thistle)[3]
Crambe maritima (Sea Kale)[4]
Epilobium angustifolium subsp. angustifolium (Rosebay Willowherb)[3]
Fragaria virginiana (Virginia Strawberry)[6]
Galeopsis tetrahit (brittle-stem hemp-nettle)[3]
Hieracium murorum (Few-leaved Hawkweed)[3]
Hirschfeldia incana (Summer Cress)[7]
Hypochaeris radicata (Common Catsear)[3]
Lapsana communis (Nipplewort)[3]
Lepidium africanum (African pepperwort)[7]
Lepidium draba (Whitetop)[4]
Lepidium oleraceum (Cook's Scurvy Grass)[5]
Nasturtium officinale (Water Cress)[4]
Prunella vulgaris (common selfheal)[3]
Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild Radish)[3]
Raphanus sativus (Wild Radish)[4]
Reseda lutea (wild mignonette)[4]
Reseda luteola (weld)[4]
Reseda odorata (garden mignonette)[4]
Rudbeckia hirta (Black-eyed Susan)[6]
Sinapis arvensis (Charlock)[4]
Sisymbrium officinale (Hedge Mustard)[4]
Succisa pratensis (devilsbit)[3]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[6]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[6]
Tropaeolum majus (nasturtium)[4]
Vicia cracca (cow vetch)[3]
Vicia sepium (Bush Vetch)[3]
Viola pedata (birdfoot violet)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aglais urticae (Small Tortoiseshell)7
Ancylis badiana3
Anthocharis cardamines (Orange Tip Butterfly)12
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)7
Apis mellifera (honey bee)6
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)10
Boloria selene (Silver-bordered fritillary)7
Callistege mi (Mother Shipton Moth)3
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)3
Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll)3
Ceutorhynchus assimilis8
Ceutorhynchus contractus5
Cnephasia asseclana (Flax Tortrix Moth)8
Cnephasia incertana (Light Grey Tortrix Moth)6
Cnephasia stephensiana (Grey Tortrix Moth)6
Coenonympha pamphilus (Small Heath Butterfly)3
Colias philodice (clouded sulphur)6
Delia radicum (cabbage maggot)3
Ematurga atomaria (Common Heath Moth)3
Empis livida4
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)7
Euclidia glyphica (Burnet Companion Moth)3
Eurois occulta (great gray dart)3
Gonepteryx rhamni (Brimstone Butterfly)4
Helophilus pendulus (Striped Hover Fly)4
Helophilus trivittatus (Sun Fly)3
Lacanobia oleracea (Bright-line Brown-Eye Moth)4
Liriomyza strigata4
Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper Butterfly)3
Maniola jurtina (Meadow Brown Butterfly)3
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)4
Meliscaeva cinctella4
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)5
Orthochaetes setiger3
Papilio polyxenes (Eastern black swallowtail)3
Peridroma saucia (variegated cutworm)4
Phaonia angelicae3
Phragmatobia fuliginosa (ruby tiger moth)4
Phyllotreta cruciferae3
Phyllotreta undulata6
Phytomyza rufipes3
Pieris brassicae (Large White)22
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)20
Plutella xylostella (Diamondback moth)8
Psylliodes napi4
Pyrgus malvae (Grizzled Skipper)3
Rhingia campestris5
Sericomyia silentis7
Sphaerophoria scripta3
Standfussiana lucernea (Northern Rustic)3
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)4
Thymelicus lineola (European skipper)4
Thymelicus sylvestris (Small Skipper)4
Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper)3
Volucella bombylans3
Xanthorhoe designata (Flame Carpet Moth)5
Xanthorhoe fluctuata (Garden Carpet Moth)6

Predators

Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)[6]
Anax junius (green darner)[6]
Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Eastern American Toad)[6]
Astochia caspica[8]
Blondelia nigripes[3]
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)[6]
Choerades fimbriata <Unverified Name>[8]
Cotesia glomerata[3]
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)[6]
Cyzenis albicans[3]
Engelepogon brunnipes[8]
Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)[6]
Heterotoma planicornis[3]
Libellula lydia (Common whitetail)[6]
Machimus fimbriatus[8]
Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)[6]
Misumena vatia (flower spider)[6]
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)[6]
Phryxe nemea[3]
Phryxe vulgaris[3]
Picromerus bidens (Spined Stink Bug )[3]
Polistes chinensis subsp. antennalis[9]
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Strawberry bass)[6]
Proctacanthus milbertii[8]
Promachus vertebratus[8]
Satanas gigas[8]
Scambus brevicornis[3]
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)[6]
Stenopogon macilentus[8]
Tenodera aridifolia (Chinese mantid)[6]
Trichomachimus scutellaris[8]
Trixa conspersa[3]
Troilus luridus <Unverified Name>[3]
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)[6]
Xanthandrus comtus[3]
Zicrona caerulea (Blue Shield Bug)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ovomermis sinensis <Unverified Name>[10]
Pimpla rufipes (Black Slip Wasp)[3]
Pollinator of 
Abutilon theophrasti (buttonweed)[11]
Agalinis tenuifolia (slender-leaf false foxglove)[11]
Agastache nepetoides (yellow giant hyssop)[11]
Ajuga reptans (common bugle)[3]
Arctium minus (Common Burdock)[11]
Asclepias incarnata (rose milkweed)[11]
Asclepias verticillata (eastern whorled milkweed)[11]
Bidens aristosa (bearded beggarticks)[11]
Bidens bipinnata (Spanish needles)[11]
Blephilia ciliata (downy blephilia)[11]
Blephilia hirsuta (hairy pagoda-plant)[11]
Boltonia asteroides (white doll's daisy)[11]
Calluna vulgaris (heather)[3]
Cardamine bulbosa (Spring Cress)[11]
Centaurea jacea (Brown Knapweed)[3]
Cephalanthus tetrandra (Buttonbush)[6]
Claytonia virginica (narrow-leaved spring beauty)[11]
Coreopsis palmata (stiff coreopsis)[11]
Corynostylis arborea (marsh blue violet)[11]
Crotalaria sagittalis (arrowhead rattlebox)[11]
Dasistoma macrophylla (mullien seyemeria)[11]
Dicentra cucullaria (dutchman's breeches)[11]
Echinacea purpurea (Eastern purple coneflower)[11]
Epilobium angustifolium subsp. angustifolium (Rosebay Willowherb)[3]
Erythronium albidum (white fawnlily)[11]
Eupatorium serotinum (late boneset)[11]
Fallopia scandens (climbing false buckwheat)[11]
Fragaria virginiana (Virginia Strawberry)[6]
Glechoma hederacea (groundivy)[11]
Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)[11]
Hibiscus trionum (rosemallow)[11]
Hieracium murorum (Few-leaved Hawkweed)[3]
Houstonia purpurea var. calycosa[11]
Hypochaeris radicata (Common Catsear)[3]
Ixeridium dentatum[12]
Justicia americana (common water-willow)[11]
Lantana camara (lantana)[11]
Lapsana communis (Nipplewort)[3]
Liatris pycnostachya (Prairie blazing star)[11]
Linaria biebersteinii (ramsted)[11]
Lithospermum canescens (hoary gromwell)[11]
Lobelia spicata (palespike lobelia)[11]
Lythrum acutangulum (wing-angle loosestrife)[11]
Malva neglecta (roundleaf mallow)[11]
Mentha arvensis (field mint)[11]
Nepeta cataria (field balm)[11]
Nothoscordum bivalve (crowpoison)[11]
Oxalis adspersa (erect woodsorrel)[11]
Oxalis bakeriana (creeping woodsorrel)[11]
Persicaria bicornis (Pennsylvania knotweed)[11]
Prunella vulgaris (common selfheal)[3]
Pycnanthemum flexuosum (Appalachian mountainmint)[11]
Rhaponticum carthamoides (Maral root)[11]
Rudbeckia hirta (Black-eyed Susan)[6]
Sida spinosa (prickly sida)[11]
Sium suave (hemlock water-parsnip)[11]
Succisa pratensis (devilsbit)[3]
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (Side-flowering Aster)[11]
Symphyotrichum pilosum (Frost Aster)[11]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[6]
Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)[11]
Trifolium repens (Ladino Clover)[11]
Triodanis perfoliata (Clasping Venus's Looking Glass)[11]
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)[11]
Verbena urticaefolia <Unverified Name>[11]
Vernonia cymosa var. cymosa (little ironweed)[11]
Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver's root)[11]
Vicia sepium (Bush Vetch)[3]
Viola pedata (birdfoot violet)[6]

Distribution

Australia; Mongolia; ; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Haeuser C., Holstein J. & Steiner A., 2011-02-19, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Body size, egg size, and their interspecific relationships with ecological and life history traits in butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea), Enrique García-Barros, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (2000), 70: 251–284 2BUTTERFLIES OF AUCKLAND, D.R. Cowley and J.M. Cowley, TANE 29, 1983, pp. 181-192 3Ecology of Commanster 4Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 5New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database 6Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 7Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19 8Predator-Prey Database for the family Asilidae (Hexapoda: Diptera) Prepared by Dr. Robert Lavigne, Professor Emeritus, University of Wyoming, USA and Dr. Jason Londt (Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg) 9ABUNDANCE OF WASPS AND PREY CONSUMPTION OF PAPER WASPS (HYMENOPTERA, VESPIDAE: POLISTINAE) IN NORTHLAND, NEW ZEALAND, B. Kay Clapperton, New Zealand Journal of Ecology (1999) 23(1): 11-19 10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 11Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA. 12Kato, M., T. Makutani, T. Inoue, and T. Itino. 1990. Insect-flower relationship in the primary beech forest of Ashu, Kyoto: an overview of the flowering phenology and seasonal pattern of insect visits. Contr. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ. 27:309-375.
Protected Areas provided by Badlands National Park GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve Carlsbad Caverns National Park Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access