Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Pleuronectidae > Parophrys > Parophrys vetulus
 

Parophrys vetulus (English sole; Lemon sole)

Synonyms: Parophrys hubbardii; Parophrys vetula; Pleuronectes digrammus; Pleuronectes vetulus
Language: French; Haida; Italian; Mandarin Chinese; Polish; Portuguese; Salish; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The English sole (Parophrys vetulus) is a flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae. It is a demersal fish that lives on sandy and muddy bottoms in estuaries and near shore areas, at depths of up to 550 metres (1,800 ft). It reaches up to 57 centimetres (22 in) in length, and can weigh up to 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb). Its native habitat is the Eastern Pacific, stretching from the coast of Baja California in the south to the Bering Sea in the north.
View Wikipedia Record: Parophrys vetulus

Attributes

Migration [1]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada

Predators

Beringraja binoculata (Big skate)[2]
Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squid)[2]
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)[3]
Galeorhinus galeus (Vitamin shark)[2]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[3]
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)[3]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[2]
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)[3]
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)[3]
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)[2]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[3]
Paralichthys californicus (Halibut)[2]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[2]
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)[2]
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)[2]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[3]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[2]
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)[2]
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)[3]
Sebastes melanops (Black bass)[3]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[3]
Trachurus symmetricus (Scad)[2]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[2]
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)[2]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ascarophis sebastodis[4]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[4]
Clavinema mariae <Unverified Name>[4]
Cucullanus annulatus <Unverified Name>[4]
Derogenes varicus[4]
Genitocotyle acirrus[4]
Lecithaster gibbosus[4]
Lepidapedon calli[4]
Otodistomum veliporum[4]
Paracapillaria parophrysi <Unverified Name>[4]
Podocotyle sinusacca[4]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[4]
Scolex polymorphus <Unverified Name>[4]
Steringophorus brevis[4]
Tubulovesicula lindbergi[4]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Ctr

Distribution

Alaska (USA); California Current; Canada; East Bering Sea; Eastern Pacific: Bering Sea to Bahia San Cristobal, central Baja California, Mexico (Ref. 27436). Hybridizes with <i>Platichthys stellatus</i> - the hybrid, called <i>Inopsetta ischyra</i>, may be found from the Bering Sea to San Francisco, California, ; Eastern Pacific: Bering Sea to Bahia San Cristobal, central Baja California, Mexico (Ref. 27436). Hybridizes with <i>Platichthys stellatus</i> - the hybrid, called <i>Inopsetta ischyra</i>, may be found from the Bering Sea to San Francisco, California, USA.; Gulf of Alaska; Mexico; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Russian Federation; USA (contiguous states); West Bering Sea;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM
2Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository.
3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
4Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access