Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Cypriniformes > Cyprinidae > Phoxinus > Phoxinus phoxinus
 

Phoxinus phoxinus (Minnow; Pink; Zaisan minnow; European minnow; Eurasian minnow; Common minnow)

Synonyms: Cyprinus aphya; Cyprinus chrysoprasius; Cyprinus isetensis; Cyprinus lumaireul; Cyprinus morella; Cyprinus phoxinus; Cyprinus rivularis; Leuciscus phoxinus; Phoxinus csikii; Phoxinus laevis; Phoxinus laevis balchaschana; Phoxinus lumaireul; Phoxinus marsilii; Phoxinus phoxinus carpathicus; Phoxinus phoxinus phoxinus; Phoxinus rivularis; Phoxinus varius; Phoxynus montanus; Salmo rivularis
Language: Albanian; Bulgarian; Chinese; Czech; Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Finnish; French; Gaelic, Irish; German; Greek; Hungarian; Italian; Korean; Latvian; Lithuanian; Macedonian; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Slovak; Slovenian; Spanish; Swedish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Eurasian minnow, minnow, or common minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) is a small species of freshwater fish in the carpfamily Cyprinidae. It is the type species of genus Phoxinus. It is ubiquitous throughout much of Eurasia, from Britain and Spain to eastern Siberia, predominantly in cool (12–20 °C) streams and well-oxygenated lakes and ponds. It is noted for being a gregarious species, shoaling in large numbers.
View Wikipedia Record: Phoxinus phoxinus

Invasive Species

Phoxinus phoxinus is a gregarious, freshwater fish that is found in cold, well oxygenated lakes and rivers. It is often associated with salmonids and is most commonly found in shallow waters. P. phoxinus is found across Europe and Asia, and is native to basins of the Arctic, Atlantic, Baltic Sea, North Sea and northern Pacific Ocean, from the United Kingdom to Korea, up to the northern reaches of Russia and Scandinavia.
View ISSG Record: Phoxinus phoxinus

Attributes

Female Maturity [2]  3 years 6 months
Male Maturity [2]  3 years 6 months
Brood Dispersal [1]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [1]  Lithophils
Brood Guarder [1]  No
Diet [1]  Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Maximum Longevity [2]  13 years
Migration [1]  Potamodromous

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Eastern Iberia Andorra, France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Italian Peninsula & Islands France, Italy, Malta, Monaco Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Upper Danube Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Adamello Presanella 69894 Italy  
Afon Tywi/ River Tywi 898 Wales, United Kingdom
Alpi Carniche 48186 Italy  
Aree delle risorgive di Viarolo, Bacini di Torrile, Fascia golenale del Po 6479 Italy  
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Biotopo Delta del Valsura 84 Italy  
Boschi del Ticino 50788 Italy  
Brenta 73487 Italy  
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Drei Gleichen 2194 Germany  
Elsterbachtal - Wiedersbacher Moore 198 Germany  
Elstertal zwischen Greiz und Wünschendorf 3959 Germany  
Fannich Hills 23816 Scotland, United Kingdom
Fenland 1529 England, United Kingdom
Fontanazzo 133 Italy  
Grave e Zone umide della Brenta 9509 Italy  
Helme mit Mühlgräben 111 Germany  
Horná Orava 145144 Slovakia  
Isola Maria Luigia 1374 Italy  
Jägersruh - Gemäßgrund - Thüringische Moschwitz 3395 Germany  
Juån 24 Sweden  
Keuperhügel und Unstrutniederung bei Mühlhausen 717 Germany  
La Rocchetta 220 Italy  
Laborecká vrchovina 266172 Slovakia  
Lachsau 393 Germany  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Lower Derwent Valley 2263 England, United Kingdom
Meisino (confluenza Po - Stura) 605 Italy  
North Pennine Dales Meadows 1228 England, United Kingdom
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
NSG Effeldertal 432 Germany  
Oberlauf der Milz 158 Germany  
Ontaneti dell'Aurino 89 Italy  
Palude Brabbia 1137 Italy  
Parco Naturale Dolomiti di Sesto 29386 Italy  
Parco Regionale Oglio Sud 9941 Italy  
Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi 56377 Italy  
Riserva Regionale Fontanile Nuovo 91 Italy  
River Derwent and Bassenthwaite Lake 4529 England, United Kingdom
River Moriston 481 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Tay 23469 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Tweed 9380 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
River Usk/ Afon Wysg 2490 Wales, United Kingdom  
River Wye/ Afon Gwy 5523 England/Wales, United Kingdom  
SALVATIERRA - FOZES DE FAGO Y BINIÉS 6360 Spain  
Schwarzatal ab Goldisthal mit Zuflüssen 4702 Germany  
SIERRAS DE LEYRE Y ORBA 14337 Spain  
SOTOS Y CARRIZALES DEL RÍO ARAGÓN 4774 Spain  
Tettautal - Klettnitzgrund 376 Germany  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Ulster 741 Germany  
Ultimo - Solda nel Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio 69162 Italy  
Val Grande 29294 Italy  
Valle dell'Adige 35 Italy  
Vattenån 47 Sweden  
Werra bis Treffurt mit Zuflüssen 5585 Germany  
Wettera 311 Germany  
Zone umide di Fossano e Sant'Albano Stura 264 Italy  

Prey / Diet

Alphitobius diaperinus (lesser mealworm)[3]
Amphinemura sulcicollis (Toothed Brown Stonefly)[3]
Anabolia nervosa (Quiverfly)[3]
Asellus aquaticus (waterlouse)[3]
Baetis fuscatus[3]
Baetis rhodani (Large dark olive)[3]
Baetis scambus[3]
Baetis vernus[3]
Capnia vidua[3]
Coregonus albula (European whitefish)[3]
Ecdyonurus dispar[3]
Isoperla grammatica[3]
Leuctra brunnea[3]
Leuctra fusca[3]
Leuctra geniculata[3]
Leuctra hippopus[3]
Leuctra inermis (Needlefly)[3]
Leuctra moselyi[3]
Nemoura cambrica[3]
Nemoura cinerea (Small Brown Stonefly)[3]
Nemurella pictetii[3]
Nigrobaetis niger[3]
Polycentropus flavomaculatus[3]
Polycentropus kingi[3]
Protonemura meyeri[3]
Rhithrogena semicolorata[3]
Rhyacophila dorsalis[3]
Rhyacophila fasciata[3]
Rhyacophila obliterata[3]
Serratella ignita[3]

Predators

Anguilla anguilla (River eel)[3]
Esox lucius (Jack)[3]
Hucho hucho (danube salmon or huchen)[3]
Hucho taimen (Taimen)[3]
Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)[3]
Mergus squamatus (Scaly-sided Merganser)[4]
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)[3]
Perca fluviatilis (River perch)[3]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[3]
Squalius cephalus (European chub)[3]
Thymallus thymallus (Grayling)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus anguillae[5]
Acanthocephalus lucii[5]
Allocreadium baueri <Unverified Name>[5]
Allocreadium isoporum <Unverified Name>[5]
Allocreadium markewitschi <Unverified Name>[5]
Allocreadium papilligerum <Unverified Name>[5]
Allocreadium transversale <Unverified Name>[5]
Anguillicola crassus <Unverified Name>[5]
Apatemon cobitidis <Unverified Name>[5]
Apophallus muehlingi[5]
Bucephalus polymorphus[5]
Camallanus lacustris[5]
Capillaria tomentosa <Unverified Name>[5]
Caryophyllaeides fennica <Unverified Name>[5]
Cleidodiscus brachus <Unverified Name>[5]
Crowcrocaecum skrjabini[5]
Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum <Unverified Name>[5]
Cystidicoloides tenuissima <Unverified Name>[5]
Dactylogyrus borealis <Unverified Name>[5]
Dactylogyrus magnificus <Unverified Name>[5]
Dactylogyrus merus <Unverified Name>[5]
Dactylogyrus phoxini <Unverified Name>[5]
Diphyllobothrium latum[5]
Diplostomum chromatophorum[5]
Diplostomum commutatum[5]
Diplostomum mergi <Unverified Name>[5]
Diplostomum paraspathaceum[5]
Diplostomum phoxini[5]
Diplostomum rutili[5]
Diplostomum spathaceum[5]
Diplostomum volvens[5]
Diplozoon gracile <Unverified Name>[5]
Diplozoon paradoxum[5]
Echinochasmus milvi[5]
Echinorhynchus truttae[5]
Eustrongylides excisus <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus aphyae <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus carassii <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus dulmaae <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus gasterostei <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus gracilihamatus[5]
Gyrodactylus jiroveci <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus jussii[5]
Gyrodactylus laevis <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus limneus <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus llewellyni <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus longoacuminatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus macronychus[5]
Gyrodactylus magnificus <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus minimus <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus minutus <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus nemachili <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus pannonicus[5]
Gyrodactylus paralaevis <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus paraminimus <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus parvus <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus phoxini <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus rhodei <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus salaris (Salmon Fluke)[5]
Gyrodactylus somnaensis <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus vimbi <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus wageneri <Unverified Name>[5]
Haplonema hamulatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Ichthyocotylurus pileatus[5]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[5]
Ichthyocotylurus variegatus[5]
Ligula intestinalis[5]
Metagonimus yokogawai[5]
Metorchis xanthostomus[5]
Nanophyetus salmincola <Unverified Name>[5]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[5]
Opisthorchis felineus <Unverified Name>[5]
Paracaryophyllaeus gotoi <Unverified Name>[5]
Paracoenogonimus ovatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Paradiplozoon homoion[5]
Paradiplozoon zeller <Unverified Name>[5]
Parasymphylodora markewitschi <Unverified Name>[5]
Pellucidhaptor merus <Unverified Name>[5]
Philometra abdominalis <Unverified Name>[5]
Philometra ovata <Unverified Name>[5]
Philometra rischta <Unverified Name>[5]
Phyllodistomum elongatum <Unverified Name>[5]
Phyllodistomum folium[5]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[5]
Posthodiplostomum cuticola[5]
Proteocephalus exiguus[5]
Proteocephalus torulosus[5]
Pseudocapillaria tomentosa <Unverified Name>[5]
Pseudoechinorhynchus borealis <Unverified Name>[5]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[5]
Rhabdochona denudata[5]
Rhabdochona phoxini <Unverified Name>[5]
Rhipidocotyle illense[3]
Schistocephalus nemachili <Unverified Name>[5]
Schulmanella petruschewskii <Unverified Name>[5]
Sphaerostomum bramae <Unverified Name>[5]
Sphaerostomum globiporum <Unverified Name>[5]
Sterliadochona tenuissima <Unverified Name>[5]
Streptocara crassicauda <Unverified Name>[5]
Tetraonchus monenteron[5]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[5]
Tylodelphys clavata[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
London Aquarium
Museum de Besancon
Ouwehand Zoo
Universeum Science Center
Zoological Society of London

Distribution

Amur; Armenia; Asia - Inland waters; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Austria; Azerbaijan; Baltic Sea; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Dneper; Don; Elbe; Erqishi River; Estonia; Eurasia: British Isles and eastern Spain to eastern Siberia. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Eurasia: basins of Atlantic, North and Baltic Seas, Arctic and northern Pacific Ocean, from Garonne (France) eastward to Anadyr and Amur drainages and Korea; Ireland (possibly introduced), Great Britain northward to 58°N. Scandinavia and Russia northernmost extremity, Rhône drainage. Recorded from upper and middle Volga and Ural drainages, Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan) and upper Syr-Darya drainage (Aral basin), but else identifications need verification. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction. Several species are confused under <i>Phoxinus phoxinus</i>.; Europe - Inland waters; Europe: Adriatic basin from Po to Drin drainages; introduced elsewhere in Italy. Identification of populations from Drin and Skadar drainages needs investigation.; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Greece; Hungary; Iberian Coastal; Ireland; Italy; Kazakhstan; Kolyma; Korea, Dem. People's Rep; Korea, Republic of; Kuban River; Lake Baikal; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Moldova, Republic of; Netherlands; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Onega River; Pacific, Northwest; Palearctic; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Sakhalin Island; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Volga;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4, www.freshwaterecology.info, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012). 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 4Scaly-sided Merganser, BirdLife International (2001) Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. 5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access