Animalia > Chordata > Elasmobranchii > Squaliformes > Etmopteridae > Etmopterus > Etmopterus spinax
 

Etmopterus spinax (Black centrina; Lantern shark; Velvet belly shark; Velvet belly lantern shark; Velvet belly)

Synonyms: Etmopterus aculeatus; Spinax gunneri; Spinax linnei; Squalus infernus; Squalus niger; Squalus spinax
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Wikipedia Abstract

The velvet belly lanternshark (or simply velvet belly, Etmopterus spinax) is a species of dogfish shark in the family Etmopteridae. One of the most common deepwater sharks in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, the velvet belly is found from Iceland and Norway to Gabon and South Africa at a depth of 70–2,490 m (230–8,170 ft).
View Wikipedia Record: Etmopterus spinax

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.03 lbs (468 g)
Female Maturity [1]  5 years
Litter Size [1]  7
Maximum Longevity [1]  7 years

Prey / Diet

Arctozenus risso (Spotted barracudina)[2]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[2]
Gadiculus argenteus (Silvery pout)[3]
Gnathophausia zoea[4]
Heteroteuthis dispar (odd bobtail squid)[3]
Histioteuthis bonnellii (umbrella squid)[5]
Histioteuthis reversa (Reverse Jewell Squid)[4]
Maurolicus muelleri (Silvery lightfish)[6]
Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Norwegian krill)[6]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[6]
Nematoscelis megalops[3]
Notoscopelus elongatus (a lanternfish)[3]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[6]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[6]
Parapenaeus longirostris (deep-water rose shrimp)[3]
Pasiphaea multidentata (pink glass shrimp)[6]
Pasiphaea sivado (white glass shrimp)[3]
Pontophilus norvegicus (Norwegian shrimp)[6]
Rossia macrosoma (stout bobtail squid)[3]
Sepietta oweniana (Common Bobtail)[3]
Systellaspis debilis[7]
Thysanoessa longicaudata[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alepocephalus rostratus (Risso's smooth-head)2
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)1
Alosa sapidissima (American shad)1
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)2
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)4
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)2
Anarhichas minor (Spotted wolf-fish)1
Argentina silus (Atlantic argentine)3
Bathyraja spinicauda (Spiny-tailed skate)1
Beryx splendens (Alfonsin)2
Brama brama (Ray's bream)1
Brosme brosme (Tusk)1
Cataetyx alleni (Allen's brotula)1
Centropristis striata (Sea bass)1
Centroscyllium fabricii (Black dogfish)1
Citharus linguatula (Spotted flounder)1
Coryphaena hippurus (Mahi-mahi)4
Coryphaenoides mediterraneus (Mediterranean grenadier)1
Deania calcea (Thompsons shark)2
Dipturus batis (Blue skate)2
Etmopterus pusillus (Smooth lanternshark)1
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)1
Fistularia commersonii (Bluespotted cornetfish)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)2
Galeus melastomus (Black-mouth catshark)5
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)1
Hoplostethus mediterraneus (Mediterranean redfish)3
Lepophidium profundorum (Fawn cusk-eel)1
Leucoraja naevus (Cuckoo ray)1
Lycodes frigidus (Glacial eelpout)1
Macrourus berglax (smoothspined grenadier)1
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)4
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)2
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)2
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)2
Molva dypterygia (Ling)1
Nezumia bairdii (Marlin-spike grenadier)1
Oblada melanura (Saddled seabream)1
Phycis chesteri (Longfin hake)1
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)2
Pollachius virens (Sillock)3
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)1
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)2
Raja brachyura (Blond ray)1
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)2
Rajella fyllae (Round ray)1
Rajella lintea (Sharp-nosed skate)3
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)1
Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Mediterranean longnose)1
Saurida undosquamis (Brushtooth lizardfish)1
Scomber scombrus (Split)1
Scophthalmus aquosus (brill)1
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)2
Scyliorhinus retifer (Chain dogfish)1
Sebastes fasciatus (Acadian redfish)1
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)1
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)1
Synodus saurus (Atlantic lizardfish)1
Tautogolabrus adspersus (Sea perch)1
Trachurus mediterraneus (Mediterranean scad)1
Triglops murrayi (Moustache sculpin)1
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)2
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)1
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)3

Predators

Dalatias licha (Seal shark)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[8]
Aporhynchus norvegicus[8]
Crossobothrium squali[8]
Lacistorhynchus tenuis[8]
Phyllobothrium squali[8]
Squalonchocotyle spinaci[8]
Tetrabothrius norvegicum[3]

Distribution

Adriatic Sea; Aegean Sea; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Eastern Central; Atlantic, Northeast; Atlantic, Southeast; Azores Islands; Belgium; Benguela Current; Benin; Cameroon; Canary Current; Cantabrian Sea; Cape Verde; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Côte d'Ivoire; Denmark; Eastern Atlantic: Iceland, Norway, and the western Mediterranean to Morocco, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire to Nigeria, Cameroon to Gabon, Azores, Cape Verde, and Cape Province, South Africa.; Equatorial Guinea; Faeroe Islands; Faroe Plateau; France; Gabon; Galician Shelf; Gambia; Ghana; Greece; Guinea; Guinea Current; Guinea-Bissau; Iberian Coastal; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Italy; Le Danois Bank; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Malta; Mauritania; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Monaco; Morocco; Netherlands; Nigeria; North Sea; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Portugal; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Slovenia; South Africa; Spain; Sweden; Thailand; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; United Kingdom; Western Sahara;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Feeding habits and trophic levels of Mediterranean fish, Konstantinos I. Stergiou & Vasiliki S. Karpouzi, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11: 217–254, 2002 3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 4Feeding ecology of deep fishes in the Le Danois Bank (Cantabrian Sea, North Spain), Preciado, I., Cartes, J., Velasco, F., Olaso, I., Serrano, A., Frutos, I., Sánchez, F., nternational Symposium on Oceanography of the Bay of Biscay (Vigo, Spain) (2006) 5Feeding ecology of demersal elasmobranchs from the shelf and slope off the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean), MARIA VALLS, ANTONI QUETGLAS, FRANCESC ORDINES and JOAN MORANTA, Scientia Marina 75(4) December 2011, 633-639, Barcelona (Spain) 6Predator-Prey Relationships and Food Sources of the Skagerrak Deep-Water Fish Assemblage, O. A. Bergstad, Å. D. Wik and Ø. Hildre, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 31, 2003, pp. 165-180 7Food composition and distribution of elasmobranches on the shelf and upper slope of the Eastern Central Atlantic., Patokina F.A., Litvinov F.F., ICES CM 2005/N:26 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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