Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Gadidae > Eleginus > Eleginus gracilis

Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod; Saffron cod; Pacific saffron cod; Cod)

Synonyms: Eleginus navaga gracilis; Gadus gracilis; Gadus wachna
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Wikipedia Abstract

The saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis), is a commercially harvested fish closely related to true cods (genus Gadus). It is dark grey-green to brown, with spots on its sides and pale towards the belly. It may grow to 60 cm and weigh up to 1.3 kg. Saffron cods begin to mature during their third year of life. They feed on fish and small crustaceans. They are commercially fished in many areas of the northwestern Pacific. The country with the largest catch is Russia. It is used for human consumption in the Russian Federation and Japan, fresh or frozen.
View Wikipedia Record: Eleginus gracilis


Adult Weight [1]  1.33 lbs (605 g)
Female Maturity [2]  2 years 6 months
Male Maturity [1]  2 years 6 months
Maximum Longevity [2]  12 years
Migration [3]  Amphidromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada

Prey / Diet

Boiga dendrophila (Gold-ringed Cat Snake, Mangrove Snake)[4]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[4]


Aethia psittacula (Parakeet Auklet)[4]
Aethia pusilla (Least Auklet)[4]
Alle alle (Little Auk)[4]
Aptenodytes patagonicus (King Penguin)[4]
Bathyraja aleutica (Aleutian skate)[4]
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)[4]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[4]
Brachyramphus perdix (Long-billed Murrelet)[4]
Cepphus carbo (Spectacled Guillemot)[4]
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)[4]
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)[4]
Chroicocephalus saundersi (Saunders's Gull)[4]
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)[5]
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus (Fiordland Penguin)[4]
Eudyptes robustus (Snares Penguin)[4]
Eudyptes sclateri (Erect-crested Penguin)[4]
Eudyptula minor (Little Penguin)[4]
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)[4]
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)[4]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[4]
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)[4]
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)[4]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[4]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[4]
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)[6]
Huso dauricus (Siberian huso sturgeon)[7]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[4]
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Great Black-headed Gull)[4]
Ichthyaetus relictus (Relict Gull)[4]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[4]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[4]
Megadyptes antipodes (Yellow-eyed Penguin)[4]
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)[4]
Microcarbo coronatus (Crowned Cormorant)[4]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[4]
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)[4]
Onychoprion aleuticus (Aleutian Tern)[4]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[4]
Pagophila eburnea (Ivory Gull)[4]
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)[4]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)[4]
Phoca largha (Spotted Seal)[4]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[4]
Platichthys stellatus (Starry flounder)[4]
Pusa hispida (Ringed Seal)[6]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[8]
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)[4]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[4]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[4]
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)[4]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[4]
Sternula antillarum (Least Tern)[4]
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)[4]
Synthliboramphus wumizusume (Japanese Murrelet)[4]
Thalassarche cauta (Shy Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche eremita (Chatham Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche salvini (Salvin's Albatross)[4]
Thalasseus bernsteini (Chinese Crested Tern)[4]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[4]
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)[4]
Xema sabini (Sabine's Gull)[4]


Parasitized by 
Diplocotyle olrikii[9]
Genolinea laticauda[9]
Gyrodactylus gerdi[4]
Hemiurus levinseni[9]
Lepidapedon gadi[9]
Neophasis oculata[9]
Nybelinia surmenicola[9]
Podocotyle reflexa[9]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[9]
Pyramicocephalus anthocephalus <Unverified Name>[9]
Pyramicocephalus phocarum[9]


Alaska (USA); America, North - Inland waters; Arctic Ocean; Beaufort Sea; Canada; Chukchi Sea; East Bering Sea; East China Sea; Europe - Inland waters; Former USSR - Inland waters; Gulf of Alaska; Japan; Korea, Dem. People's Rep; Korea, Republic of; Kuroshio Current; North Pacific: Chemulpo in North Korea (Yellow Sea) in the southwest to Sitka, Alaska in the southeast. Beyond the Bering Strait from Cape Lisburne in Chukchi Sea and east to Dease Strait (south coast of Victoria Island). Precise delimitation of the ra; North Pacific: Chemulpo in North Korea (Yellow Sea) in the southwest to Sitka, Alaska in the southeast. Beyond the Bering Strait from Cape Lisburne in Chukchi Sea and east to Dease Strait (south coast of Victoria Island). Precise delimitation of the range depends on additional taxonomic study.; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Palearctic; Russian Federation; Sea of Japan; Sea of Okhotsk; West Bering Sea; Yukon;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Feeding of Bearded Seals in the Bering and Chukchi Seas and Trophic Interaction with Pacific Walruses, LLOYD F. LOWRY, KATHRYN J. FROST, AND JOHN J. BURNS, ARCTIC VOL. 33, NO. 2 (JUNE 1980). P. 330-342
6Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game
7Endemic sturgeons of the Amur River: kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, Mikhail L. Krykhtin & Victor G. Svirskii, Environmental Biology of Fishes 48: 231–239, 1997
8Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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