Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Gadidae > Boreogadus > Boreogadus saida
 

Boreogadus saida (Polar cod; Cod; Arctic cod)

Synonyms: Boreogadus polaris; Gadus agilis; Gadus fabricii; Gadus saida; Merlangus polaris; Pollachius polaris
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Wikipedia Abstract

Boreogadus saida, known as the polar cod or as the Arctic cod, is a fish of the cod family Gadidae, related to the true cod (genus Gadus). Another fish species for which both the common names Arctic cod and polar cod are used is Arctogadus glacialis.B. saida has a slender body, a deeply forked tail, a projecting mouth, and a small whisker on its chin. It is plainly coloured with brownish spots and a silvery body. It grows to a length of 40 cm (16 in).
View Wikipedia Record: Boreogadus saida

Attributes

Male Maturity [3]  2 years 6 months
Maximum Longevity [2]  7 years
Migration [1]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ukkusiksalik National Park II   Nunavut, Canada

Prey / Diet

Apherusa glacialis[4]
Calanus finmarchicus[5]
Calanus glacialis[4]
Calanus hyperboreus[4]
Hyperia galba[5]
Limacina helicina (helicid pteropod)[4]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[6]
Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Norwegian krill)[4]
Metridia longa[7]
Mysis litoralis[4]
Oithona spinirostris[4]
Onisimus glacialis[4]
Onisimus nanseni[4]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[4]
Paraeuchaeta glacialis[4]
Paraeuchaeta norvegica[4]
Paramysis kessleri[4]
Pontophilus norvegicus (Norwegian shrimp)[4]
Spiochaetopterus typicus[4]
Themisto abyssorum[4]
Themisto libellula[5]
Thysanoessa inermis[4]
Thysanoessa longicaudata[4]
Thysanoessa raschii (Arctic krill)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alca torda (Razorbill)1
Alle alle (Little Auk)2
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)1
Arctogadus glacialis (Polar cod)1
Argentina silus (Atlantic argentine)1
Artediellus atlanticus (Atlantic hookear)1
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)2
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)1
Benthosema glaciale (Large-eyed froghead)1
Brama japonica (Bigtooth pomfret)1
Careproctus reinhardti (Longfin seasnail)1
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)1
Coryphaenoides rupestris (Roundnose grenadier)1
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)1
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)1
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)1
Eumicrotremus spinosus (Atlantic spiny lumpsucker)1
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)1
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)1
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)1
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)1
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)1
Gadus ogac (White sea nonmigratory cod)1
Gaidropsarus argentatus (Treebearded rockling)1
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)1
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)1
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)1
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)1
Liparis gibbus (Dusky snailfish)1
Lycodes esmarkii (Esmark's eelpout)1
Lycodes reticulatus (Arctic eelpout)1
Macrourus berglax (smoothspined grenadier)1
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)1
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)1
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)2
Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Leach's Storm-Petrel)1
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)1
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)1
Phoca largha (Spotted Seal)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)1
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)2
Polydactylus quadrifilis (Threadfin)1
Pusa hispida (Ringed Seal)1
Rajella fyllae (Round ray)1
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)1
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)2
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)1
Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Smallfin lanternfish)1
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)1
Triglops murrayi (Moustache sculpin)1
Uria aalge (Common Murre)1
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)1

Predators

Aethia psittacula (Parakeet Auklet)[4]
Aethia pusilla (Least Auklet)[4]
Alle alle (Little Auk)[4]
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[4]
Balaena mysticetus (bowhead whale)[4]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)[4]
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)[4]
Brachyphallus crenatus[4]
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)[4]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[4]
Brachyramphus perdix (Long-billed Murrelet)[4]
Cepphus carbo (Spectacled Guillemot)[4]
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)[4]
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)[5]
Chroicocephalus saundersi (Saunders's Gull)[4]
Coregonus autumnalis (Arctic cisco)[4]
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)[4]
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)[8]
Derogenes varicus[4]
Echinorhynchus gadi[4]
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)[9]
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus (Fiordland Penguin)[4]
Eudyptes robustus (Snares Penguin)[4]
Eudyptes sclateri (Erect-crested Penguin)[4]
Eudyptula minor (Fairy Penguin)[4]
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)[4]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[4]
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)[4]
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)[4]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Gadus ogac (White sea nonmigratory cod)[10]
Hemilepidotus jordani (Yellow Irish lord)[4]
Hemilepidotus papilio (Butterfly sculpin)[4]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[4]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[4]
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Great Black-headed Gull)[4]
Ichthyaetus relictus (Relict Gull)[4]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[11]
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)[4]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[4]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[4]
Lecithaster gibbosus[4]
Megadyptes antipodes (Yellow-eyed Penguin)[4]
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)[4]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[4]
Microcarbo coronatus (Crowned Cormorant)[4]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[12]
Monodon monoceros (Narwhal)[13]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[4]
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)[4]
Odobenus rosmarus (Walrus)[4]
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)[4]
Onychoprion aleuticus (Aleutian Tern)[4]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[4]
Pagophila eburnea (Ivory Gull)[14]
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)[15]
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)[4]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)[4]
Phoca largha (Spotted Seal)[4]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[4]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[4]
Pusa hispida (Ringed Seal)[4]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[4]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[16]
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)[4]
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)[4]
Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark)[4]
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)[4]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[4]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[4]
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)[4]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[4]
Sternula antillarum (Least Tern)[4]
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)[4]
Synthliboramphus wumizusume (Japanese Murrelet)[4]
Thalassarche cauta (Shy Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche eremita (Chatham Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche salvini (Salvin's Albatross)[4]
Thalasseus bernsteini (Chinese Crested Tern)[4]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[4]
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)[5]
Xema sabini (Sabine's Gull)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[17]
Brachyphallus crenatus[17]
Contracaecum osculatum[17]
Corynosoma semerme[17]
Corynosoma strumosum[17]
Derogenes varicus[17]
Diphyllobothrium plerocercoid <Unverified Name>[17]
Gyrodactylus kutikovana[4]
Hemiurus levinseni[17]
Lecithaster gibbosus[17]
Lepidapedon gadi[17]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[17]
Scolex bothriosimplex <Unverified Name>[17]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[17]
Tetrabothrius erostris[17]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium du Quebec

Distribution

Alaska (USA); Arctic Ocean; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Atlantic, Northwest; Beaufort Sea; Canada; Chukchi Sea; Circumpolar in the Arctic. North Atlantic: White Sea, Iceland, and southern Greenland into the Miramichi River, New Brunswick in Canada. North Pacific: Bering Sea to Cape Olyutorski, the Pribilof Islands, and Bristol Bay.; East Bering Sea; East Greenland Shelf/Sea; East Siberian Sea; Greenland; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Laptev Sea; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Russian Federation; Scotian Shelf; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; West Bering Sea; West Greenland Shelf;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5Notes on fishes in Hornsund fjord area (Spitsbergen), Jan Marcin WĘSLAWSKI and Wojciech KULIŃSKI, POLISH POLAR RESEARCH (POL. POLAR RES.) Vol. 10 No. 2 p. 241-250 (1989) 6The role of capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the foodweb of the Barents Sea, A. V. Dolgov, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 1034–1045. 2002 7"Trophic ecology of sympatric Arctic gadoids, Arctogadus glacialis (Peters, 1872) and Boreogadus saida (Lepechin, 1774), in NE Greenland", Jørgen S. Christiansen, Haakon Hop, Einar M. Nilssen, John Joensen, Polar Biology August 2012, Volume 35, Issue 8, pp 1247-1257 8Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 9Feeding habits of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) from the Svalbard area, Norway, A. M. Hjelset1, M. Andersen, I. Gjertz, C. Lydersen and B. Gulliksen, Polar Biology, Volume 21, Number 3 / February, 1999, pages 186-193 10Biology of Greenland cod, Gadus ogac, at Saqvaqjuac, northwest coast of Hudson Bay, Mansour Y. Mikhail & Harold E. Welch, Environmental Biology of Fishes 26: 49-62, 1989. 11Fish prey spectrum of short-finned squid (Illex illecebrosus) at Newfoundland, Earl G. Dawe, Edgar L. Dalley, and Wayne W. Lidster, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54(Suppl. 1): 200–208 (1997). 12Trophic ecology of blue whiting in the Barents Sea, Andrey V. Dolgov, Edda Johannesen, Mikko Heino, and Erik Olsen, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 483–493 13Monodon monoceros, Randall R. Reeves and Sharon Tracey, Mammalian Species No. 127, pp. 1-7 (1980) 14Ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) distribution in late summer and autumn in eastern Lancaster Sound and western Baffin Bay, Wayne E. Renaud, Peter L. McLaren, Arctic Vol. 35, No. 1 (March 1982), p. 141-148 15Diet of Harp Seals (Phoca groenlandica) in Divisions 2J and 3KL During 1991–93, J. W. Lawson, G. B. Stenson and D. G. McKinnon, NAFO Sci. Coun. Studies, 21: 143–154 (1994) 16An estimate of summer food consumption of six seabird species in Iceland, K. Lilliendahl and J. Solmundsson, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54: 624–630. 1997 17Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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