Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Clupeiformes > Engraulidae > Engraulis > Engraulis encrasicolus
 

Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy; Anchovy; European anchovy; Southern anchovy; South African anchovy; Italian sardel; Black Sea Anchovy; Anchovy paste; Anchovies; Alice)

Synonyms: Anchoa guineensis; Anchoviella guineensis; Clupea encrasicolus; Engraulis amara; Engraulis argyrophanus; Engraulis encrasicholus; Engraulis encrasicholus ponticus; Engraulis encrasicolis; Engraulis encrasicolus russoi; Engraulis encrassicolus; Engraulis engrasicholus; Engraulis engrasicolus; Engraulis guineensis; Engraulis meletta; Engraulis russoi; Engraulis vulgaris; Engraulus encrasicholus
Language: Afrikaans; Albanian; Arabic; Bulgarian; Catalan; Croatian; Czech; Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Ewe; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Icelandic; Italian; Japanese; Latvian; Lithuanian; Maltese; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Serer; Slovenian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish; Wolof

Wikipedia Abstract

The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is a forage fish somewhat related to the herring. Anchovies are placed in the family Engraulidae. It is easily distinguished by its deeply cleft mouth, the angle of the gape being behind the eyes. The pointed snout extends beyond the lower jaw. The fish resembles a sprat in having a forked tail and a single dorsal fin, but the body is round and slender. The maximum length is 21 cm (8 1⁄8 in).
View Wikipedia Record: Engraulis encrasicolus

Attributes

Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [3]  1 year
Maximum Longevity [1]  3 years
Migration [2]  Oceanodromous

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Tsitsikamma National Park II 34343 Southern Cape, South Africa  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Prey / Diet

Acartia clausi[4]
Aetideus armatus[4]
Calanus helgolandicus[4]
Calocalanus pavo[4]
Candacia armata[4]
Centropages chierchiae[4]
Centropages typicus[5]
Clytemnestra scutellata[4]
Creseis clava (straight needle-pteropod)[4]
Euchaeta acuta[4]
Euterpina acutifrons[4]
Evadne spinifera[4]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[4]
Mesopodopsis slabberi[4]
Microsetella norvegica[4]
Microsetella rosea[4]
Oithona nana[4]
Paracalanus parvus[4]
Pasiphaea sivado (white glass shrimp)[4]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[4]
Platyscelus ovoides[4]
Podon intermedius[4]
Stylocheiron longicorne[4]
Temora stylifera[4]
Westwoodilla rectirostris[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Cepola macrophthalma (Red bandfish)1
Cetorhinus maximus (Sun-fish)1
Oblada melanura (Saddled seabream)1
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)1

Predators

Alosa fallax (Twaite shad)[4]
Auxis thazard (Frigate tuna)[4]
Calonectris edwardsii (Cape Verde Shearwater)[4]
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)[4]
Chlidonias albostriatus (Black-fronted Tern)[4]
Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae (Silver Gull)[4]
Chroicocephalus saundersi (Saunders's Gull)[4]
Chroicocephalus scopulinus (Red-billed Gull)[4]
Citharus linguatula (Spotted flounder)[6]
Conger conger (Conger)[4]
Coryphaena hippurus (Mahi-mahi)[7]
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)[8]
Elops lacerta (Atlantic ladyfish)[4]
Engraulis capensis (Southern African anchovy)[4]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[4]
Etmopterus spinax (Black centrina)[5]
Eudyptula minor (Little Penguin)[4]
Euthynnus affinis (Yaito bonito)[4]
Fistularia commersonii (Bluespotted cornetfish)[9]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[4]
Fregetta tropica (Black-bellied Storm Petrel)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Galeus melastomus (Black-mouth catshark)[5]
Huso huso (Beluga)[4]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[4]
Ichthyaetus audouinii (Audouin's Gull)[10]
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Great Black-headed Gull)[4]
Ichthyaetus relictus (Relict Gull)[4]
Illex coindetii (southern shortfin squid)[11]
Istiompax indica (Marlin)[4]
Istiophorus platypterus (Atlantic sailfish)[4]
Larosterna inca (Inca Tern)[4]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[4]
Larus heermanni (Heermann's Gull)[4]
Larus livens (Yellow-footed Gull)[4]
Larus occidentalis (Western Gull)[4]
Larus pacificus (Pacific Gull)[4]
Lepidopus caudatus (Southern frostfish)[4]
Leucocarbo chalconotus (bronze shag)[4]
Leucocarbo onslowi (Chatham Islands shag)[4]
Leucocarbo ranfurlyi (Bounty Islands shag)[4]
Loligo vulgaris (European Squid)[4]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[4]
Merluccius capensis (Cape hake)[4]
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)[12]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[4]
Microcarbo coronatus (Crowned Cormorant)[4]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[4]
Mnemiopsis leidyi (Leidy's comb jelly)[4]
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)[4]
Mustelus mustelus (Sweet William)[4]
Nesofregetta fuliginosa (Polynesian Storm Petrel)[4]
Oblada melanura (Saddled seabream)[13]
Oceanodroma castro (Band-rumped Storm-Petrel)[4]
Oceanodroma matsudairae (Matsudaira's Storm Petrel)[4]
Oceanodroma microsoma (Least Storm-Petrel)[4]
Papasula abbotti (Abbott's Booby)[4]
Pelecanus conspicillatus (Australian Pelican)[4]
Pelecanus crispus (Dalmatian Pelican)[4]
Pelecanus thagus (Peruvian Pelican)[4]
Phalacrocorax capillatus (Japanese Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax featherstoni (Pitt Island shag)[4]
Phalacrocorax fuscescens (Black-faced Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax harrisi (Flightless Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax punctatus (spotted shag)[4]
Phalacrocorax sulcirostris (Little Black Cormorant)[4]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[14]
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)[4]
Pterogymnus laniarius (Panga seabream)[4]
Puffinus assimilis (Little Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus auricularis (Townsend's Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus carneipes (Flesh-footed Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus huttoni (Hutton's Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus lherminieri (Audubon's Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus pacificus (Wedge-tailed Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus yelkouan (Yelkouan Shearwater)[15]
Raja clavata (Roker)[4]
Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Mediterranean longnose)[16]
Sarda sarda (Stripe-backed pelamis)[4]
Saurida undosquamis (Brushtooth lizardfish)[5]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[4]
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)[4]
Seriola dumerili (Yellow tail)[5]
Spheniscus demersus (Jackass Penguin)[4]
Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt Penguin)[4]
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)[4]
Spheniscus mendiculus (Galapagos Penguin)[4]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[4]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[17]
Stenella coeruleoalba (Striped Dolphin)[4]
Sterna acuticauda (Black-bellied Tern)[4]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[4]
Sterna hirundinacea (South American Tern)[4]
Sterna repressa (White-cheeked Tern)[4]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[4]
Sternula antillarum (Least Tern)[4]
Sternula balaenarum (Damara Tern)[4]
Sternula lorata (Peruvian Tern)[4]
Sternula nereis (Fairy Tern)[4]
Sternula saundersi (Saunders's Tern)[4]
Sternula superciliaris (Yellow-billed Tern)[4]
Sula dactylatra (Masked Booby)[4]
Sula granti (Nazca Booby)[4]
Sula leucogaster (Brown Booby)[4]
Sula nebouxii (Blue-footed Booby)[4]
Sula sula (Red-footed Booby)[4]
Synodus saurus (Atlantic lizardfish)[18]
Thalassarche carteri (Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross)[4]
Thalasseus bengalensis (Lesser Crested Tern)[4]
Thalasseus bergii (Swift Tern)[4]
Thalasseus elegans (Elegant Tern)[4]
Thalasseus maximus (Royal Tern)[4]
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)[5]
Thunnus tonggol (Oriental bonito)[4]
Trachipterus trachypterus (Mediterranean dealfish)[4]
Trachurus mediterraneus (Mediterranean scad)[19]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[4]
Trichiurus lepturus (Atlantic Cutlassfish)[4]
Trisopterus minutus (poor cod)[4]
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)[4]
Uranoscopus scaber (Stargazer)[4]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[4]
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis pegreffii <Unverified Name>[20]
Ascaris engraulidis <Unverified Name>[20]
Ascaris gracilescens <Unverified Name>[20]
Bacciger bacciger[20]
Bacciger grandispinatus[20]
Bacciger minutus[20]
Bunocotyle cingulata[20]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[20]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[4]
Cryptocotyle lingua[4]
Gyrodactylus alviga[4]
Gyrodactylus nov <Unverified Name>[20]
Hemiurus appendiculatus[20]
Lecithaster gibbosus[20]
Parahemiurus merus[20]
Pentagramma symmetricum <Unverified Name>[20]
Prodistomum polonii[20]
Pseudoanthocotyle markewitschii <Unverified Name>[20]
Pseudobacciger harengulae[20]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[20]
Stephanostomum cesticillum[20]
Stephanostomum pristis[20]
Telosentis exiguus[20]
Theledera acanthocephala[20]

Distribution

Aegean Sea; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Arabian Sea; Asia - Inland waters; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Eastern Central; Atlantic, Northeast; Atlantic, Southeast; Baltic Sea; Belgium; Benguela Current; Benin; Black Sea; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Cameroon; Canary Current; Canary Islands; Cantabrian Sea; Cape Verde; Caspian Sea; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Channel Islands; Congo, Dem. Rep. of the; Congo, Republic of; Croatia; Cyprus; Côte d'Ivoire; Denmark; Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to East London, South Africa (perhaps reaching Durban) (Ref. 10000). Also all of Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; also recorded from St. Helena (Ref. 189). Repor; Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to East London, South Africa (perhaps reaching Durban) (Ref. 10000). Also all of Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; also recorded from St. Helena (Ref. 189). Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247).; Egypt; England and Wales (UK); Equatorial Guinea; Estonia; Finland; France; Gabon; Galician Shelf; Gambia; Georgia; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea; Guinea Current; Guinea-Bissau; Iberian Coastal; Indian Ocean; Indian Ocean, Western; Iran (Islamic Rep. of); Ireland; Isle of Man; Israel; Italy; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madeira Islands; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Monaco; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; Nigeria; North Sea; Northern Ireland; Norway; Persian Gulf; Poland; Portugal; Red Sea; Romania; Russian Federation; Saint Helena; Sao Tomé and Principe; Scotland (UK); Sea of Marmara; Senegal; Serbia and Montenegro; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; Spain; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tagus; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Western Sahara; Ébrié Lagoon;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
2Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Feeding habits and trophic levels of Mediterranean fish, Konstantinos I. Stergiou & Vasiliki S. Karpouzi, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11: 217–254, 2002
6Feeding behaviour and daily ration of the spotted flounder Citharus linguatula (Osteichthyes: Pleuronectiformes) in the central Tyrrhenian Sea, PAOLO CARPENTIERI, TIZIANA CANTARELLI, FRANCESCO COLLOCA, ALESSANDRO CRISCOLI and GIANDOMENICO ARDIZZONE, Scientia Marina 74(4) December 2010, 659-667
7DIET AND FEEDING OF DOLPHIN (CORYPHAENA HIPPURUS) IN WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN WATERS, Enric Massutí, Salud Deudero, Pilar Sánchez and Beatriz Morales-Nin, BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE, 63(2): 329–341, 1998
8Intraspecific dietary variation in the short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the Bay of Biscay: importance of fat fish, Laureline Meynier, Claire Pusineri, Jérôme Spitz, M. Begoña Santos, Graham J. Pierce, Vincent Ridoux, MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Vol. 354: 277–287, 2008
9DIET OF THE LESSEPSIAN FISTULARIA COMMERSONII (TELEOSTEI, FISTULARIIDAE) OFF THE COAST OF LEBANON: PRELIMINARY RESULTS, Michel Bariche, Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Médit., 38, 2007
10Activity patterns and foraging behaviour of Audouin’s gulls in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean, SANTI MAÑOSA, DANIEL ORO and XAVIER RUIZ, SCI. MAR., 68 (4): 605-614 (2004)
11CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
12Diet of the european hake Merluccius merluccius (Pisces: Merlucciidae) in the Western Mediterranean (Gulf of Lions), A. Bozzano, L. Recasens and P. Sartor, SCI. MAR. 61(1): 1-8 (1997)
13FEEDING HABITS OF THE SADDLED BREAM, OBLADA MELANURA (SPARIDAE), IN THE ADRIATIC SEA, Armin PALLAORO, Mate ŠANTIĆ & Ivan JARDAS, Cybium 2003, 27(4): 261-268.
14THE DIET OF HARBOUR PORPOISE (PHOCOENA PHOCOENA) IN THE NORTHEAST ATLANTIC, M. B. SANTOS & G. J. PIERCE, Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 2003, 41, 355–390
15del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
16Food composition and distribution of elasmobranches on the shelf and upper slope of the Eastern Central Atlantic., Patokina F.A., Litvinov F.F., ICES CM 2005/N:26
17Yick, Jonah L., Adam Barnett, and Sean R. Tracey. "The trophic ecology of two abundant mesopredators in south-east coastal waters of Tasmania, Australia." Marine Biology 159.6 (2012): 1183+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 July 2014.
18Diet of Atlantic lizardfish, Synodus saurus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Synodontidae) in the central Mediterranean Sea, Valentina Esposito, Pietro Battaglia, Luca Castriota, Maria Grazia Finoia, Gianfranco Scotti and Franco Andaloro, Scientia Marina 73(2) June 2009, 369-376
19Diet Composition of Horse Mackerel, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Aleev, 1956 (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in the Bulgarian Black Sea Waters, Maria Hristova Yankova, Violin Stoyanov Raykov, Petya Bogomilova Frateva, Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 8: 321-327 (2008)
20Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
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Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
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