Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Pleuronectidae > Glyptocephalus > Glyptocephalus cynoglossus
 

Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Witch flounder; Witch; Whitch; Grey-sole; Grey sole; Gray sole; Craig fluke)

Synonyms: Glyptocephalus acadianus; Platessa elongata; Pleuronectes cynoglossus; Pleuronectes nigromanus; Pleuronectes saxicola
Language: Danish; Dutch; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Icelandic; Italian; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Spanish; Swedish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Witch flounder or Torbay sole (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus) is a right-eyed flatfish found in the North Atlantic.The species lives on soft bottoms between 45 and 1460 m and prefers temperatures of 2–6 °C. It eats mostly crustaceans, worms and brittlestars. It spawns from May to September.
View Wikipedia Record: Glyptocephalus cynoglossus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  3.03 lbs (1.38 kg)
Maximum Longevity [3]  25 years
Migration [2]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes dubius (offshore sand lance)[4]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[5]
Amphiura filiformis (brittlestar)[5]
Astarte arctica (Arctic astarte)[5]
Bodotria scorpioides[5]
Brachydiastylis resima[5]
Byblis serrata[5]
Calocaris macandreae[5]
Casco bigelowi[5]
Cerianthus lloydii[5]
Echiurus echiurus (Echiurud worm)[5]
Glycera dibranchiata (Bloodworm)[6]
Goniada gigantea[6]
Goniada maculata[5]
Goniada norvegica[6]
Hermania scabra[5]
Hippoglossina oblonga (Fourspot flounder)[5]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[5]
Lagis koreni (Köcherwurm)[5]
Maera loveni[5]
Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster)[5]
Notomastus latericeus[5]
Oikopleura dioica[5]
Oithona helgolandica[5]
Ophelina acuminata[5]
Paraninoe brevipes[6]
Philine catena[5]
Sabella pavonina (slijkkokerworm)[5]
Scoletoma fragilis[6]
Sternaspis scutata[6]
Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (ellipse)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)3
Centropristis striata (Sea bass)1
Coelorinchus caelorhincus (Saddled grenadier)1
Dasyatis centroura (clam cracker)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)1
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)1
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)1
Leucoraja erinacea (common skate)3
Leucoraja ocellata (Winter skate)1
Limanda ferruginea (rusty flounder)1
Macrourus berglax (smoothspined grenadier)1
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)1
Micropogonias undulatus (Atlantic croacker)1
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Sea raven)1
Paralichthys dentatus (fluke)1
Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus (Alaska plaice)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)1
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder)1
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)1
Scophthalmus aquosus (brill)1
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)1
Stenotomus chrysops (Scup)2
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)1
Urophycis regia (Spotted hake)1

Predators

Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[7]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)[5]
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)[5]
Calidris alba (Sanderling)[5]
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)[5]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[5]
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)[5]
Hemitripterus americanus (Wip)[5]
Homo sapiens (man)[5]
Leucoraja erinacea (common skate)[5]
Leucoraja ocellata (Winter skate)[5]
Lophius americanus (Monkfish)[5]
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)[5]
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)[5]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[5]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[5]
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)[5]
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)[5]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[5]
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)[5]
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder)[5]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[5]
Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)[5]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[5]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[8]
Aporocotyle simplex[8]
Ascarophis morrhuae <Unverified Name>[8]
Cryptocotyle lingua[8]
Derogenes varicus[8]
Echinorhynchus gadi[8]
Echinorhynchus laurentianus[8]
Genolinea laticauda[8]
Gonocerca macroformis <Unverified Name>[8]
Grillotia erinaceus[8]
Hysterothylacium gadi <Unverified Name>[8]
Lecithaster gibbosus[8]
Macvicaria soleae[8]
Otodistomum veliporum[8]
Progonus muelleri[8]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[8]
Scolex polymorphus <Unverified Name>[8]
Spinitectoides berlandi <Unverified Name>[8]
Stenakron vetustum[8]
Stephanostomum baccatum[8]
Steringophorus furciger[8]

Distribution

Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Atlantic, Northwest; Baltic Sea; Belgium; Canada; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; China; Denmark; East Greenland Shelf/Sea; Eastern Atlantic: Northern Spain to northern Norway. Western Atlantic: Gulf of St. Lawrence and Grand Banks in Canada to North Carolina in USA (Ref. 7251).; Faeroe Islands; Faroe Plateau; France; Galician Shelf; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Greenland; Iberian Coastal; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Isle of Man; Netherlands; Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf; North Sea; Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Scotian Shelf; Spain; Sweden; USA (contiguous states); United Kingdom; West Greenland Shelf;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 3Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 4Feeding Habits of Fish Species Distributed on the Grand Bank, Concepción González1, Xabier Paz, Esther Román, and María Hermida, NAFO SCR Doc. 06/31, Serial No. N5251 (2006) 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Food of Northwest Atlantic Fishes and Two Common Species of Squid, Ray E. Bowman, Charles E. Stillwell, William L. Michaels, and Marvin D. Grosslein, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-155 (2000) 7Distribution and feeding ecology of Raja radiata in the northeastern North Sea and Skagerrak (Norwegian Deep), J. E. Skjæraasen, and O. A. Bergstad, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 1249–1260. 2000 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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